Racial Inequality in Health Care During a Pandemic

23 Pages Posted: 13 Sep 2020 Last revised: 10 Nov 2020

See all articles by Raphael Bruce

Raphael Bruce

Insper Institute of Education and Research

Sergio Firpo

Insper

Michael França

Insper

Luis Meloni

University of São Paulo

Date Written: September 11, 2020

Abstract

This paper provides evidence that a person's race influences the probability of receiving proper health care during a pandemic. In order to do so, we use country-wide individual-level data of people hospitalized due to respiratory infections in Brazil during the COVID-19 crisis. We find that white individuals are more likely to receive intensive care treatment than their counterparts from different races, even after accounting for observable characteristics such as symptoms, co-morbidities, and hospital and epidemiological-week fixed effects. We also find that this effects comes mostly from private hospitals, where only patients with insurance can have access to ICU units. No racial disparity is found in public hospitals, where ICUs are allocated regardless of access to private insurance. Our findings are consistent with the presence of institutional racism in Brazilian health care markets, where racial inequalities in the economy are reproduced in this market through race-neutral rules.

Keywords: Race, Inequality, Health, COVID-19

JEL Classification: I14, J15

Suggested Citation

Bruce, Raphael and Firpo, Sergio and França, Michael and Meloni, Luis, Racial Inequality in Health Care During a Pandemic (September 11, 2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3691313 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3691313

Raphael Bruce (Contact Author)

Insper Institute of Education and Research ( email )

R Quata 300
Sao Paulo, 04542-030
Brazil

Sergio Firpo

Insper ( email )

R Quata 300
Sao Paulo, 04542-030
Brazil

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/sergiopfirpo/

Michael França

Insper ( email )

R Quata 300
Sao Paulo, 04542-030
Brazil

HOME PAGE: http://sites.google.com/alumni.usp.br/michael

Luis Meloni

University of São Paulo ( email )

São Paulo, São Paulo
Brazil

HOME PAGE: http://luismeloni.com

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