Grammatical Gender and Anthropomorphism: “It” Depends on the Language

64 Pages Posted: 18 Sep 2020 Last revised: 30 Sep 2020

See all articles by Alican Mecit

Alican Mecit

HEC Paris - Marketing

Tina M. Lowrey

HEC Paris - Marketing

L. J. Shrum

HEC Paris

Date Written: May 15, 2020


Consumers often anthropomorphize non-human entities. In this research, we investigate a novel antecedent of anthropomorphism: language. Some languages (e.g., English) make a grammatical distinction between humans (he, she) and non-humans (it), whereas other languages (e.g., French) do not (all objects are gender-marked). We propose that such grammatical structures of languages influence the way individuals mentally represent non-human entities, and as a result, their generalized tendencies to anthropomorphize such entities. Across 10 studies, we provide evidence that speakers of languages that do not grammatically distinguish between humans and non-humans (it-less languages) anthropomorphize more than do speakers of languages that do make this distinction (non-it-less languages). We demonstrate the effects across natural languages (French, Turkish, English) and by manipulating grammatical gender. We show that the effects are observable in naturally occurring consumer contexts (e.g., secondary sales data), and that gender-marking in it-less languages influences consumers’ interactions with brands, even though the gender-markings are semantically arbitrary, and that these effects occur nonconsciously. Our findings have implications for the broader debate on the extent to which language influences thought, and also suggest ways in which managers can leverage nonconscious grammatical anthropomorphism to influence consumer perceptions, attitudes, and behavior.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, anthropomorphism

Suggested Citation

Mecit, Alican and Lowrey, Tina and Shrum, L. J., Grammatical Gender and Anthropomorphism: “It” Depends on the Language (May 15, 2020). HEC Paris Research Paper No. MKG-2020-1386, Available at SSRN: or

Alican Mecit (Contact Author)

HEC Paris - Marketing ( email )


Tina Lowrey

HEC Paris - Marketing ( email )


L. J. Shrum

HEC Paris ( email )

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