The Great Depression as a Saving Glut
54 Pages Posted: 22 Sep 2020
Date Written: September 2020
Facing the Great Depression, Keynes blamed the detrimental consequences of precautionary savings on growth (paradox of thrift). Yet, the magnitude, forms and effects of savings accumulation remain unexplored in studies on the international economic crash of the 1930s. Based on new data for 22 countries, we document that the Great Depression was associated with a large international increase in savings institutions' deposits. Banking crises spurred precautionary savings. Panel estimations show a negative conditional correlation between real GDP and deposits in savings institutions when a banking crisis hit. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that the negative effect of precautionary savings on growth was at least as large as the direct effect of the decline in banking activity. The evolution of the saving rate began to reverse as countries left the gold standard.
Keywords: banking crises, Great Depression, paradox of thrift, precautionary savings, Savings Banks
JEL Classification: B22, E21, E51, G01, G21, N1, N2
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation