Multi-Asset Market Impact and Order Flow Commonality
23 Pages Posted: 12 Jan 2021
Date Written: October 6, 2020
The empirical finding that market movements in stock prices may be correlated with the order flow of other stocks has led to the notion of "cross-impact" and has prompted the development of multivariate models of market impact. These models are parametrized by a matrix of impact coefficients whose off-diagonal elements are meant to capture how trades in one asset influence the price of other assets, leading to a large number of 'cross-impact' parameters which may not be identified solely based on the covariance of returns with order flow. Moreover, empirical evidence suggests that these cross-impact terms are unstable and change sign randomly over time, which poses a problem for their interpretation and use. We reexamine this empirical evidence from a causal standpoint and offer a simpler explanation for the observed correlation between the returns of an asset and the order flow imbalance of other assets, in terms of common components in order flow across stocks which may naturally arise from multi-asset trading strategies.
We provide empirical evidence from order flow and price changes of NASDAQ-100 stocks to support this explanation. Our results show the main determinants of impact to be idiosyncratic order flow imbalance as well as a market order flow factor common across stocks. Additional ‘cross-impact’ terms account for less than 1% of market impact. This leads to a parsimonious approach for causal modelling of multi-asset impact, which does not require introducing any concept of "cross-impact".
Keywords: market impact, cross-impact, liquidity, volatility
JEL Classification: C58, G12
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation