Macroeconomics, Firm Dynamics and IPOs

58 Pages Posted: 19 Oct 2020

Date Written: October 19, 2020

Abstract

This paper extends a model of firm dynamics to incorporate heterogeneous privately held and publicly traded firms facing different financial frictions, and the decision to become publicly traded (Initial Public Offering, or IPO) is endogenous. This allows changes in the economic environment to affect these firms differently, impacting the selection into becoming publicly traded, and its macroeconomic outcomes. Firms are born privately held and small due to financial frictions. They finance investment with internal resources and debt and have the choice to go public (IPO). The main trade-off is access to external equity financing, at a one-off cost of IPO and an increased cost of operation. The calibrated model is successful in capturing the size distribution of firms, the share of publicly traded firms, and the dynamics around the IPO date. The decrease in corporate and dividend taxes experienced from the 1970s to the 1990s benefited more publicly traded firms financing with equity at the margin. This helps explaining the stock market boom, and the observed changes in the characteristics of firms going public, their investment and payout behavior. I perform some counterfactual exercises to understand what could be the reasons behind the decrease in publicly traded firms since the 2000s: increased cost of being public, increased access to debt, or changes in the idiosyncratic shock process. I find these changes are consistent with part (though not all) of the changes in IPO choice, payout and investment behavior of publicly traded firms in this period.

Keywords: firm life cycle, macroeconomics, fiscal policy, corporate finance, IPO

JEL Classification: D25, E23, G32, G35, H25, H32

Suggested Citation

González, Beatriz, Macroeconomics, Firm Dynamics and IPOs (October 19, 2020). Banco de Espana Working Paper No. 2030, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3714888 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3714888

Beatriz González (Contact Author)

Banco de España ( email )

Alcala 50
Madrid 28014
Spain

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