Mechatronic Damping Systems As Enablers for Autonomous Machine Tools
8 Pages Posted: 13 Nov 2020
Date Written: November 4, 2020
Structural vibrations of machine tools and machine components are one of the limiting factors in high-speed machining. The structural vibrations reduce the surface quality of parts and reduce the positioning accuracy of the tool. In the worst case scenario, disturbances caused by machine vibrations can lead to process destabilization and component failure. Currently, the industry uses passive components to reduce certain machine vibrations. These passive components are specially designed for specific operating points and do not allow rapid compensation of a wide range of vibrations. Current research is focused on mechatronic damping systems that actively compensate structural vibrations. The mechatronic damping systems are able to detect structural vibrations with integrated sensors. System models are used to calculate the actuating forces required to compensate these vibrations. This enables a faster response to disturbances caused by machine vibrations. The further development and research of these mechatronic damping systems is the next step towards a further degree of machine tool autonomy. In the vision of autonomous machine tools, the machine configures itself and executes the production process independently. Autonomous machine tools require machine components and auxiliary systems which react autonomously and in a structurally-integrated manner to external disturbances. In this paper, two examples of mechatronic damping systems are presented to demonstrate how these systems work. By means of active jerk decoupling system, vibrations of the machine frame are actively damped. Moreover, a motor-integrated spindle damping concept allows for the active damping of chatter vibrations. The mechatronic damping systems are classified in the following according to the level of autonomy of their respective machine components and further steps are discussed to increase the degree of autonomy.
Keywords: Autonomous machine tool; adaptronics; smart structures; mechatronic; active jerk decoupling; spindle damping
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