Essential Work and Emergency Childcare: Identifying Gender Differences in COVID-19 Effects on Labour Demand and Supply

39 Pages Posted: 11 Nov 2020

See all articles by Jordy Meekes

Jordy Meekes

Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research; IZA

Wolter Hassink

Utrecht University

Guyonne R.J. Kalb

University of Melbourne - Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research; ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course; IZA

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Date Written: November 10, 2020

Abstract

We examine whether the COVID-19 crisis affects women and men differently in terms of employment, working hours and hourly wages outcomes, and whether the effects are demand or supply driven. COVID-19 impacts are studied using administrative data on all Dutch employees up to 30 June 2020, focussing on the national lockdown and the emergency childcare for essential workers in the Netherlands. First, we find that the impact of COVID-19 is much larger for non-essential workers than for essential workers. Although, on average, women and men are equally affected, female non-essential workers are more affected than male non-essential workers. Second, partnered individuals with young children are equally affected by the crisis as others, irrespective of gender and spousal employment. Third, single-parent essential workers experience relatively large negative labour supply effects, suggesting emergency childcare was not sufficient for this group. However, overall, labour demand effects appear more important than labour supply effects.

Keywords: COVID-19, Gender, Employment, Hours worked, Lockdown, Essential workers

JEL Classification: J13, J16, J20, J64

Suggested Citation

Meekes, Jordy and Hassink, Wolter and Kalb, Guyonne R.J., Essential Work and Emergency Childcare: Identifying Gender Differences in COVID-19 Effects on Labour Demand and Supply (November 10, 2020). Life Course Centre Working Paper No. 2020-27, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3727684 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3727684

Jordy Meekes (Contact Author)

Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research ( email )

Level 5, FBE Building, 111 Barry Street
Parkville, Victoria 3010
Australia

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/site/jmeekes/

IZA

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Wolter Hassink

Utrecht University ( email )

Vredenburg 138
Utrecht, 3511 BG
Netherlands

Guyonne R.J. Kalb

University of Melbourne - Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research ( email )

Level 5, FBE Building, 111 Barry Street
Parkville, Victoria 3010
Australia

ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course ( email )

185 Pelham Street
Carlton, 3053
Australia

IZA ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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