Cognitive Reflection in Multi-Issue Negotiation

27 Pages Posted: 7 Dec 2020 Last revised: 30 Mar 2021

See all articles by Mihael A Jeklic

Mihael A Jeklic

King's College London, School of Law

Date Written: December 7, 2020


Suboptimal outcomes in negotiation have been associated with the implicit fixed-pie bias. The ability to correct this bias might be a critical capacity in negotiation and is often at the core of negotiation training. Cognitive reflection – an individual thinking disposition enabling people to suppress and override automatic responses – predicts performance in a variety of individual heuristics and biases tasks. A study (N = 262) investigated whether cognitive reflection predicts negotiation outcomes and whether improvements associated with training are mediated by training-enhanced cognitive reflection of the participants. The results show that cognitive reflection predicts both an individual negotiator’s gain and all aspects of joint gain. Training enhances performance and is partially mediated by increased cognitive reflection. The findings support the proposition that cognitive reflection is an independent thinking disposition that underpins resistance to bias and improves outcomes in negotiation settings.

Keywords: cognitive reflection, negotiation, zero-sum bias, training, social psychology, decision-making

Suggested Citation

Jeklic, Mihael A, Cognitive Reflection in Multi-Issue Negotiation (December 7, 2020). King's College London Law School Research Paper 2020-42, Available at SSRN: or

Mihael A Jeklic (Contact Author)

King's College London, School of Law ( email )

Somerset House East Wing
London, WC2R 2LS
United Kingdom

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics