The Effects of COVID-19 Policies on Livelihoods and Food Security of Smallholder Farm Households in Nigeria: Descriptive Results from a Phone Survey

IFPRI Discussion Paper 1979 (2020)

34 Pages Posted: 10 Dec 2020

See all articles by Bedru Balana

Bedru Balana

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Motunrayo Ayowumi Oyeyemi

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Adebayo Ogunniyi

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Adetunji Fasoranti

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Hyacinth Edeh

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Joel Aiki

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Kwaw Andam

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Date Written: December 8, 2020

Abstract

The Government’s policy measures such as travel restrictions, lockdowns, and restrictions on economic and social activities, aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19, had affected the livelihoods and food security of smallholders in Nigeria. Using data collected from sample households from four Nigerian states, this study investigated the effects of COVID-19 pandemic policies on the incomes, employment, and food security situation of smallholder farming households. Results show that 88 percent of the households reported that they lost about 50 percent of their income due to the pandemic. As a result, about 66 percent of respondents reported they reduced food consumption. Travel and movement restrictions caused disruptions in agricultural activities and supply chains, as 29 percent of respondents reported planting fewer crops, 24 percent reduced cropping area, and 24 percent reduced fertilizer application. In terms of household’s food security, results show that COVID-19 significantly worsened the food security situation of many households in Nigeria, especially poorer households. More than 80 percent of respondents worried about not having enough food and 77 percent ate less food than they thought they should. Survey households also reported a significant reduction of consumption of proteins (eggs, meat, and dairy products) and fruits since the pandemic struck. Increases in food prices are felt by most households (85 percent). We suggest three key policy priorities: support vulnerable households to mitigate the impacts of income loss through cash transfer or improved credit access; interventions to improve agricultural inputs supply chains to ease the pandemic’s impact on agricultural production; and support food insecure households through direct food distribution.

Keywords: Nigeria, West Africa, Africa South of Sahara, Africa, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, COVID-19, livelihoods, food security, smallholders, households, household income, income loss

Suggested Citation

Balana, Bedru and Oyeyemi, Motunrayo Ayowumi and Ogunniyi, Adebayo and Fasoranti, Adetunji and Edeh, Hyacinth and Aiki, Joel and Andam, Kwaw, The Effects of COVID-19 Policies on Livelihoods and Food Security of Smallholder Farm Households in Nigeria: Descriptive Results from a Phone Survey (December 8, 2020). IFPRI Discussion Paper 1979 (2020), Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3745080

Bedru Balana (Contact Author)

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Motunrayo Ayowumi Oyeyemi

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Adebayo Ogunniyi

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Adetunji Fasoranti

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

2033 K Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
United States
20005 (Fax)

Hyacinth Edeh

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

Joel Aiki

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources ( email )

Kwaw Andam

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

2033 K Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
69
Abstract Views
267
Rank
489,713
PlumX Metrics