The Making and Consolidation of the First National Trademark System: Diffusion of Trademarks across Spanish Regions (1850–1920)
Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography: 20.60, Utrecht University
30 Pages Posted: 27 Feb 2021
Date Written: June 15, 2020
This article studies the creation and consolidation of a trademark system tantamount to market integration and commercial specialization of Spanish regions from 1850 to 1920. We analyze the first 47,000 registrations, their geographical distribution, and the drivers behind this trademark expansion. By using a lineal probability model, we find knowledge spillovers across regions are associated with their relative trademark specialization and diversification. We incorporate the role played by transport infrastructure by calculating generalized transport costs. Our results clarify the origins and evolution of geographical differences in commercial innovation and regional specialization in the first country to institute modern trademark legislation.
Keywords: Trademarks/Branding, Specialization/Diversification, Generalized Transport Costs, Regional History, Markets, Spain
JEL Classification: N93, O34, C25, R12
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