Trauma at School: The Impacts of Shootings on Students&Apos; Human Capital and Economic Outcomes

55 Pages Posted: 4 Jan 2021

See all articles by Marika Cabral

Marika Cabral

University of Texas at Austin; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Bokyung Kim

University of Texas at Austin, Department of Economics, Students

Maya Rossin-Slater

Stanford University

Molly Schnell

Northwestern University - Department of Economics

Hannes Schwandt

Northwestern University

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Abstract

A growing number of American children are exposed to gun violence at their schools, but little is known about the impacts of this exposure on their human capital attainment and economic well-being. This paper studies the causal effects of exposure to shootings at schools on children's educational and economic outcomes, using individual-level longitudinal administrative data from Texas. We analyze the universe of shootings at Texas public schools that occurred between 1995 and 2016, and match schools that experienced shootings with observationally similar control schools in other districts. We use difference-in-differences models that leverage within-individual and across-cohort variation in shooting exposure within matched school groups to estimate the short- and long-run impacts of shootings on students attending these schools at the time of the shooting. We find that shooting-exposed students have an increased absence rate and are more likely to be chronically absent and repeat a grade in the two years following the event. We also find adverse long-term impacts on the likelihood of high school graduation, college enrollment and graduation, as well as employment and earnings at ages 24–26. Heterogeneity analyses by student and school characteristics indicate that the detrimental impacts of shootings are universal, with most sub-groups being affected.

JEL Classification: I24, I31, J13

Suggested Citation

Cabral, Marika and Kim, Bokyung and Rossin-Slater, Maya and Schnell, Molly and Schwandt, Hannes, Trauma at School: The Impacts of Shootings on Students&Apos; Human Capital and Economic Outcomes. IZA Discussion Paper No. 13998, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3758699 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3758699

Marika Cabral (Contact Author)

University of Texas at Austin ( email )

Department of Economics
2225 Speedway, BRB 1.116, C3100
Austin, TX 78712
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Bokyung Kim

University of Texas at Austin, Department of Economics, Students ( email )

Austin, TX
United States

Maya Rossin-Slater

Stanford University ( email )

Stanford, CA 94305
United States

Molly Schnell

Northwestern University - Department of Economics ( email )

2003 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208
United States

Hannes Schwandt

Northwestern University ( email )

2001 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208
United States

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