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U.S. Building Energy Efficiency and Flexibility as an Electric Grid Resource

64 Pages Posted: 15 Jan 2021 Publication Status: Published

See all articles by Jared Langevin

Jared Langevin

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

Chioke B. Harris

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

Aven Satre-Meloy

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

Handi Chandra Putra

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division

Andrew Speake

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

Elaina Present

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

Rajendra Adhikari

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

Eric Wilson

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

Andrew Satchwell

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) - Electricity Markets and Policy Department

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Abstract

Buildings consume 75% of U.S. electricity; therefore, improving the efficiency and flexibility of building operations could increase the reliability and resilience of the rapidly-changing electricity system. We estimate the technical potential near- and long-term impacts of best available building efficiency and flexibility measures on annual electricity use and hourly demand across the contiguous U.S. Co-deployment of building efficiency and flexibility avoids up to 742 TWh of annual electricity use and 181 GW of daily net peak load in 2030, rising to 800 TWh and 208 GW by 2050; at least 59 GW and 69 GW of the peak reductions are dispatchable. Implementing efficiency measures alongside flexibility measures reduces the potential for off-peak load increases, underscoring limitations on load shifting in efficient buildings. Overall, however, we find a substantial building-grid resource that could reduce future fossil-fired generation needs while also reducing dependence on energy storage with increasing variable renewable energy penetration.

Suggested Citation

Langevin, Jared and Harris, Chioke B. and Satre-Meloy, Aven and Putra, Handi Chandra and Speake, Andrew and Present, Elaina and Adhikari, Rajendra and Wilson, Eric and Satchwell, Andrew, U.S. Building Energy Efficiency and Flexibility as an Electric Grid Resource. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3767157 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3767157
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Jared Langevin (Contact Author)

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division ( email )

United States

Chioke B. Harris

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
United States

Aven Satre-Meloy

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division ( email )

United States

Handi Chandra Putra

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Building Technology and Urban Systems Division ( email )

United States

Andrew Speake

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
United States

Elaina Present

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
United States

Rajendra Adhikari

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
United States

Eric Wilson

National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Buildings Technologies and Science Center

1617 Cole Blvd.
Golden, CO 80401-3393
United States

Andrew Satchwell

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) - Electricity Markets and Policy Department

1 Cyclotron Road
Berkeley, CA 94720
United States

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