There Is No Nil in NIL: Examining the Social Media Value of Student-Athletes’ Names, Images, and Likeness

Sport Management Review

43 Pages Posted: 12 Mar 2021

See all articles by Thilo Kunkel

Thilo Kunkel

Temple University - Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management

Bradley Baker

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Thomas Baker

University of Georgia

Jason Doyle

Griffith University

Date Written: January 22, 2021

Abstract

This research contributes to our understanding of the name, image, and likeness (NIL) value of student-athletes’ social media profiles. In Study 1, we scraped data from the Twitter (Nf = 3,880; Nb =757) and Instagram (Nf = 2,223; Nb = 647) profiles of male collegiate-level football and basketball athletes. In Study 2, we scraped data from the Twitter (N =1,058; posts = 20,978) and Instagram (N = 1,410; posts = 16,453) profiles of all student-athletes of four (two top-tier and two mid-tier) representative universities. Applying influencer marketing industry standard rates, the current research shows that student-athletes possess NIL value. Results further indicate student-athletes’ NIL value has a relationship with, but is not solely generated at, the institution level. Thus, this research contributes to student-athlete personal branding knowledge and informs discussion around policy and industry practice related to student-athletes, university athletics departments, athletic conferences, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Keywords: Brands; Athlete Brand; Student-Athletes; Social Media; Collegiate Sport

Suggested Citation

Kunkel, Thilo and Baker, Bradley and Baker, Thomas and Doyle, Jason, There Is No Nil in NIL: Examining the Social Media Value of Student-Athletes’ Names, Images, and Likeness (January 22, 2021). Sport Management Review , Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3771581 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3771581

Thilo Kunkel (Contact Author)

Temple University - Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19122
United States

Bradley Baker

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Thomas Baker

University of Georgia ( email )

4458 Tacoma Trce.
Suwanee, GA GA 30024
United States
3525148113 (Phone)
3525148113 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://https://coe.uga.edu/directory/profiles/tab3

Jason Doyle

Griffith University ( email )

170 Kessels Road
Nathan, Queensland QLD 4111
Australia

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