There Is No Nil in NIL: Examining the Social Media Value of Student-Athletes’ Names, Images, and Likeness

Sport Management Review

43 Pages Posted: 12 Mar 2021

See all articles by Thilo Kunkel

Thilo Kunkel

Temple University - Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management

Bradley Baker

Mark H. McCormack Department of Sport Management, University of Massachusetts

Thomas Baker

University of Georgia

Jason Doyle

Griffith University

Date Written: January 22, 2021

Abstract

This research contributes to our understanding of the name, image, and likeness (NIL) value of student-athletes’ social media profiles. In Study 1, we scraped data from the Twitter (Nf = 3,880; Nb =757) and Instagram (Nf = 2,223; Nb = 647) profiles of male collegiate-level football and basketball athletes. In Study 2, we scraped data from the Twitter (N =1,058; posts = 20,978) and Instagram (N = 1,410; posts = 16,453) profiles of all student-athletes of four (two top-tier and two mid-tier) representative universities. Applying influencer marketing industry standard rates, the current research shows that student-athletes possess NIL value. Results further indicate student-athletes’ NIL value has a relationship with, but is not solely generated at, the institution level. Thus, this research contributes to student-athlete personal branding knowledge and informs discussion around policy and industry practice related to student-athletes, university athletics departments, athletic conferences, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Keywords: Brands; Athlete Brand; Student-Athletes; Social Media; Collegiate Sport

Suggested Citation

Kunkel, Thilo and Baker, Bradley and Baker, Thomas and Doyle, Jason, There Is No Nil in NIL: Examining the Social Media Value of Student-Athletes’ Names, Images, and Likeness (January 22, 2021). Sport Management Review , Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3771581 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3771581

Thilo Kunkel (Contact Author)

Temple University - Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19122
United States

Bradley Baker

Mark H. McCormack Department of Sport Management, University of Massachusetts ( email )

121 Presidents Dr
Amherst, MA 01003
United States

Thomas Baker

University of Georgia ( email )

4458 Tacoma Trce.
Suwanee, GA GA 30024
United States
3525148113 (Phone)
3525148113 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://https://coe.uga.edu/directory/profiles/tab3

Jason Doyle

Griffith University ( email )

170 Kessels Road
Nathan, Queensland QLD 4111
Australia

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
955
Abstract Views
3,605
rank
34,384
PlumX Metrics