The First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Socioeconomic Inequality in Psychological Distress in the UK

34 Pages Posted: 25 Jan 2021 Last revised: 16 Apr 2023

See all articles by Apostolos Davillas

Apostolos Davillas

University of East Anglia (UEA)

Andrew Jones

University of York

Abstract

We use data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) to compare measures of socioeconomic inequality in psychological distress, measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), before (Waves 9 and the Interim 2019 Wave) and during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April to July 2020). Based on a caseness measure, the prevalence of psychological distress increased from 18.5% to 27.7% between the 2019 Wave and April 2020 with some reversion to earlier levels in subsequent months. Also, there was a systematic increase in total inequality in the Likert GHQ-12 score. However, measures of relative socioeconomic inequality have not increased. A Shapley-Shorrocks decomposition analysis shows that during the peak of the first wave of the pandemic (April 2020) other socioeconomic factors declined in their share of socioeconomic inequality, while age and gender account for a larger share. The most notable increase is evident for younger women. The contribution of working in an industry related to the COVID-19 response played a small role at Wave 9 and the Interim 2019 Wave, but more than tripled its share in April 2020. As the first wave of COVID-19 progressed, the contribution of demographics declined from their peak level in April and chronic health conditions, housing conditions, and neighbourhood characteristics increased their contributions to socioeconomic inequality.

Keywords: mental health, psychological distress, COVID-19, GHQ, socioeconomic inequality, health equity

JEL Classification: C1, D63, I12, I14

Suggested Citation

Davillas, Apostolos and Jones, Andrew, The First Wave of the Covid-19 Pandemic and its Impact on Socioeconomic Inequality in Psychological Distress in the UK. IZA Discussion Paper No. 14057, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3771740 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3771740

Apostolos Davillas (Contact Author)

University of East Anglia (UEA) ( email )

Norwich Research Park
Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ
United Kingdom

Andrew Jones

University of York

Do you have negative results from your research you’d like to share?

Paper statistics

Downloads
63
Abstract Views
430
Rank
625,891
PlumX Metrics