Critical Thinking: Conceptual Framework

i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 11(4),45-53, 2018

9 Pages Posted: 15 Mar 2021

Date Written: January 25, 2021


Critical”, “Criticism”, and “Critic” all come from the age-old Greek word “Kritikos”, meaning able to authorise, discern, or decide. In contemporary English, a “Critic” is someone whose job is to make appraise judgements, for example, about films, books, music, or food. It means giving a fair and unprejudiced opinion of something. The same as for Education is concerned, critical thinking is a cognitive activity associated with using mind. Critical thinking is the ability to transfer knowledge learned from certain disciplines to other cognitive areas. Critical thinking was connected with supporting suspicious thoughts along with developing individual thoughtful skills, such as logical reasoning and personal judgement. According to John Dewey, “thinking is the natural propensity of mind, day dreaming, building of acropolis in the air are the examples for thinking”, in a random sense. John Dewy further says to become analytical thinker or to think critically that “reflections” is more important. Piaget say “Thinking is based on experience”. “Intelligence, is the product of the innate potential interacting with the environment” and young children knows more that he can verbalise. Development has to do with general mechanisms of action and thinking. Vygotsky suggests that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. “Critical thinking” is needed for critical analysis, while “critical pedagogy” goes beyond it claiming that societal instructions producing and implementing knowledge, and related ideologies have to be questioned and transformed. Paul goes on to argue that an ample conception of critical thinking must go away from skills, and include the dispositions and personality traits relevant to the use and appreciation of those skills

Keywords: Critical Thinking, John Dewey's Views, Piaget's Views, Vygotsky's Views, Critical Pedagogy Views

Suggested Citation

C H, Dr. Padmanabha, Critical Thinking: Conceptual Framework (January 25, 2021). i-manager’s Journal on Educational Psychology, 11(4),45-53, 2018, Available at SSRN:

Dr. Padmanabha C H (Contact Author)

Srinivas Institute of Education ( email )

Srinivas University
Mangalore, 575001
7619581864 (Phone)

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