lancet-header

Preprints with The Lancet is part of SSRN´s First Look, a place where journals identify content of interest prior to publication. Authors have opted in at submission to The Lancet family of journals to post their preprints on Preprints with The Lancet. The usual SSRN checks and a Lancet-specific check for appropriateness and transparency have been applied. Preprints available here are not Lancet publications or necessarily under review with a Lancet journal. These preprints are early stage research papers that have not been peer-reviewed. The findings should not be used for clinical or public health decision making and should not be presented to a lay audience without highlighting that they are preliminary and have not been peer-reviewed. For more information on this collaboration, see the comments published in The Lancet about the trial period, and our decision to make this a permanent offering, or visit The Lancet´s FAQ page, and for any feedback please contact preprints@lancet.com.

The Characteristics of Iodine Nutrition Status in China after 20 Years of USI: An Epidemiology Study Covering 31 Provinces

49 Pages Posted: 26 Jan 2021

See all articles by Tingting Liu

Tingting Liu

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Yongze Li

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Di Teng

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Xiaoguang Shi

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Li Yan

Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Jing Yang

Shanxi Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Yongli Yao

Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital - Department of Endocrinology

Zhen Ye

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Jianming Ba

Government of the People's Republic of China - Department of Endocrinology

Bing Chen

Third Military Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Jianling Du

Dalian University - Department of Endocrinology

Lanjie He

Ningxia Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Xiaoyang Lai

Nanchang University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Xiaochun Teng

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Yanbo Li

Harbin Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Haiyi Chi

Hohhot First Hospital - Department of Endocrinology

Eryuan Liao

Central South University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Chao Liu

Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine (NJUCM) - Research Center of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases

Libin Liu

Fujian Medical University - Fujian Institute of Endocrinology

Guijun Qin

Zhengzhou University - Division of Endocrinology

Yingfen Qin

Guangxi Medical University - Department of Endocrine

Huibiao Quan

Hainan Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Bingyin Shi

Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - Department of Endocrinology

Hui Sun

Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Formerly Tongi Medical University) - Department of Endocrinology

Xulei Tang

Lanzhou University - Department of Endocrinology

Nanwei Tong

Sichuan University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Guixia Wang

Jilin University (JLU) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Jin-an Zhang

Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences - Department of Endocrinology

Youmin Wang

Anhui Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Yuanming Xue

Kunming University of Science and Technology - Department of Endocrinology

Lihui Yang

People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Qiao Zhang

Guizhou Medical University (Guiyang Medical University) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Lihui Zhang

Hebei Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Jun Zhu

Xinjiang Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Mei Zhu

Tianjin Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Zhongyan Shan

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Weiping Teng

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

More...

Abstract

Background: The mandatory universal salt iodization (USI) program has been implemented in China for about twenty years to correct iodine deficiency. At present, the actual iodine nutrition status of Chinese residents and whether they are adversely affected by iodine excess are issues of general concerns.

Method: A nationally representative cross-sectional study was conducted. 78,470 participants, aged 18 or older, were enrolled from all 31 provincial regions of mainland China. The participants were interviewed and given a questionnaire. Urine iodine concentration (UIC) were measured by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) method. The goiter was examined by thyroid ultrasonography. The iodine category was based on the criteria of WHO.

Results: The iodized salt coverage is 95·37% in the general population. The median urine iodine (MUI) was 177·89μg/L (interquartile range, 117·89-263·90μg/L) in the general population with goiter prevalence 1·17% (95%CI, 0·95-1·43%). The MUI was 199·7(interquartile range, 128·46-303·02) in school age children with prevalence of goiter 3·50% (95% CI, 2·93% to 4·13%). The percentage of moderate iodine deficiency (UIC<50μg/L) was 3·43%. The subjects with adequate iodine and more than adequate iodine in total accounting for 63·44% of the whole population. The data also manifested that gender, age, ethnic, geographic factors, BMI, smoking habits, education and income levels have a certain degree of influence on the iodine nutrition level.

Conclusion: The mandatory USI program in China has successfully eliminated iodine deficiency disorders for 20 years. Our epidemiological investigation suggested that the iodine nutrition level of Chinese residents is generally within the safe range.

Funding Statement: This work is supported by the Research Fund for Public Welfare from National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (Grant No. 201402005).

Declaration of Interests: There is no conflict in interest.

Ethics Approval Statement: The research protocols were approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of China Medical University.

Keywords: iodine deficiency, iodine excess, iodized salt, goiter

Suggested Citation

Liu, Tingting and Li, Yongze and Teng, Di and Shi, Xiaoguang and Yan, Li and Yang, Jing and Yao, Yongli and Ye, Zhen and Ba, Jianming and Chen, Bing and Du, Jianling and He, Lanjie and Lai, Xiaoyang and Teng, Xiaochun and Li, Yanbo and Chi, Haiyi and Liao, Eryuan and Liu, Chao and Liu, Libin and Qin, Guijun and Qin, Yingfen and Quan, Huibiao and Shi, Bingyin and Sun, Hui and Tang, Xulei and Tong, Nanwei and Wang, Guixia and Zhang, Jin-an and Wang, Youmin and Xue, Yuanming and Yang, Lihui and Zhang, Qiao and Zhang, Lihui and Zhu, Jun and Zhu, Mei and Shan, Zhongyan and Teng, Weiping, The Characteristics of Iodine Nutrition Status in China after 20 Years of USI: An Epidemiology Study Covering 31 Provinces. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3773512 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3773512

Tingting Liu

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Yongze Li

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Di Teng

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Xiaoguang Shi

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Li Yan

Sun Yat-Sen University (SYSU) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120
China

Jing Yang

Shanxi Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001
China

Yongli Yao

Qinghai Provincial People's Hospital - Department of Endocrinology

Xining, Qinghai 810000
China

Zhen Ye

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Binjiang
Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310051
China

Jianming Ba

Government of the People's Republic of China - Department of Endocrinology

Beijing, 100853
China

Bing Chen

Third Military Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Chongqing, 400038
China

Jianling Du

Dalian University - Department of Endocrinology

Dalian, Liaoning 116011
China

Lanjie He

Ningxia Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004
China

Xiaoyang Lai

Nanchang University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006
China

Xiaochun Teng

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Yanbo Li

Harbin Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

157 Baojian Rd
Nangang Qu
Haerbin Shi, Heilongjiang Sheng
China

Haiyi Chi

Hohhot First Hospital - Department of Endocrinology

Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010000
China

Eryuan Liao

Central South University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Changsha, Hunan 410011
China

Chao Liu

Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine (NJUCM) - Research Center of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases

Nanjing, Jiangsu 210028
China

Libin Liu

Fujian Medical University - Fujian Institute of Endocrinology

Fuzhou, Fujian 350001
China

Guijun Qin

Zhengzhou University - Division of Endocrinology ( email )

Yingfen Qin

Guangxi Medical University - Department of Endocrine

Nanning, Guangxi 530021
China

Huibiao Quan

Hainan Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Haikou, Hainan 570311
China

Bingyin Shi

Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU) - Department of Endocrinology ( email )

Xi'an, Shannxi 710061
China

Hui Sun

Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Formerly Tongi Medical University) - Department of Endocrinology ( email )

Wuhan, Hubei 430022
China

Xulei Tang

Lanzhou University - Department of Endocrinology

Lanzhou, Gansu 730000
China

Nanwei Tong

Sichuan University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

37 GuoXue Lane
Chengdu, Sichuan 610041
China

Guixia Wang

Jilin University (JLU) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism ( email )

China

Jin-an Zhang

Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences - Department of Endocrinology ( email )

Shanghai, 201318
China

Youmin Wang

Anhui Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Hefei, Anhui 230000
China

Yuanming Xue

Kunming University of Science and Technology - Department of Endocrinology

Kunming, Yunnan 650032
China

Lihui Yang

People's Hospital of Tibet Autonomous Region - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Lhasa, Tibet 850000
China

Qiao Zhang

Guizhou Medical University (Guiyang Medical University) - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Guiyang, Guizhou 550004
China

Lihui Zhang

Hebei Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000
China

Jun Zhu

Xinjiang Medical University - Department of Endocrinology

Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054
China

Mei Zhu

Tianjin Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Tianjin, 300052
China

Zhongyan Shan

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism ( email )

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Weiping Teng (Contact Author)

China Medical University - Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism ( email )

No 155, Nanjing Bei Street
Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

China Medical University - Institute of Endocrinology ( email )

Shenyang, Liaoning 110001
China

Click here to go to TheLancet.com

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
123
Downloads
15
PlumX Metrics