Victim Impact Testimony and the Psychology of Punishment

36 Pages Posted: 11 Feb 2003

See all articles by Janice Nadler

Janice Nadler

Northwestern University - School of Law; American Bar Foundation

Mary R. Rose

University of Texas at Austin - Department of Sociology


A growing body of empirical evidence from psychology, sociology, law, and criminal justice has demonstrated that lay intuitions about punishment are strongly rooted in retributivism: i.e., the idea that punishment should be distributed in proportion to moral desert. Level of harm is often thought to be indicative of desert, but harm described by victims (or survivors) in the context of victim impact evidence is subjective and often unforeseeable insofar as it is attributable to chance factors. How do observers (such as jurors or judges) use information about consequences determined by chance factors when they judge punishment? The emotional and cognitive processes involved in jurors' use of victim impact evidence potentially reveals key insights about the psychological mechanisms underlying laypersons' punishment judgments generally. This paper explores empirical evidence for the notion that the subjective harm experienced by the victim of an offense serves as proxy for the level of defendant's effort and culpability, and by implication, the perceived seriousness of the crime.

Keywords: victim impact statements, punishment, retribution, psychology, capital punishment

Suggested Citation

Nadler, Janice and Rose, Mary R., Victim Impact Testimony and the Psychology of Punishment. Cornell Law Review, Vol. 88, pp. 419-456, 2003, Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No. 03-02, U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 47, Available at SSRN: or

Janice Nadler (Contact Author)

Northwestern University - School of Law

375 E. Chicago Ave
Chicago, IL 60611
United States
312-503-3228 (Phone)
312-503-2035 (Fax)

American Bar Foundation ( email )

750 N. Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, IL 60611

Mary R. Rose

University of Texas at Austin - Department of Sociology ( email )

2317 Speedway
Austin, TX Texas 78712
United States
512-232-6336 (Phone)

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