Beyond the Gender Binary: Transgender Labor Force Status in the United States 2014-2017

87 Pages Posted: 8 Mar 2021

See all articles by Travis Campbell

Travis Campbell

University of Massachusetts at Amherst - College of Social and Behavioral Sciences - Department of Economics

M. V. Lee Badgett

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Everest Brennan

University of Massachusetts at Amherst - College of Social and Behavioral Sciences - Department of Economics

Date Written: February 12, 2021

Abstract

Following the recent acknowledgment of and debates around transgender people in the United States, there has emerged a small but growing literature on the economic implications of being transgender. However, this literature has either failed to account for major components of gender by only including gender identity or has been belied by sampling bias, both of which may entail drastic mischaracterizations of transgender labor market outcomes. This paper builds from social identity theory to provide a formal model of gender - the interplay between gender identity, expression, and perception. We apply this model using the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Systems 2014-2017 and find evidence of labor market penalties associated with feminine identities, expressions, and perceptions.

Keywords: Transgender, Identity Economics, Labor Market Equality, Labor Discrimination

JEL Classification: J71, J21, D91, Z13, B54

Suggested Citation

Campbell, Travis and Lee Badgett, M. V. and Brennan, Everest, Beyond the Gender Binary: Transgender Labor Force Status in the United States 2014-2017 (February 12, 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3784771 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3784771

Travis Campbell (Contact Author)

University of Massachusetts at Amherst - College of Social and Behavioral Sciences - Department of Economics ( email )

Amherst, MA 01003
United States

M. V. Lee Badgett

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Department of Operations and Information Managemen
Amherst, MA 01003
United States

Everest Brennan

University of Massachusetts at Amherst - College of Social and Behavioral Sciences - Department of Economics ( email )

Amherst, MA 01003
United States

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