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Assessing the Effectiveness of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 COVID-19 Vaccination in Prevention of Hospitalisations in Elderly and Frail Adults: A Single Centre Test Negative Case-Control Study
32 Pages Posted: 3 Mar 2021More...
Background: On 8th December 2020, deployment of the first vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 authorised for UK use, the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2, began, followed by the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1nCoV-19 on 4th January 2021. Initially care home-residents and staff, frontline healthcare workers and adults from age 80 were targeted. In phase 3 trials, BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1nCoV-19 demonstrated 95% and 70% efficacy, respectively, after two doses against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, few data exist regarding the effectiveness of these vaccines in elderly frail people. Evaluation following implementation to determine the effectiveness of one dose in reducing hospitalisations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection in elderly adults is urgent.
Methods: A prospective single-centre test-negative design case-control study of adults aged ≥80 years hospitalised with COVID-19 disease or other acute respiratory disease. We conducted logistic regression controlling for time (week), gender, index of multiple deprivations (IMD), and care residency status (CRS), and sensitivity analyses matched for time and gender using a conditional logistic model adjusting for IMD and CRS.
Findings: First dose vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 was 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.5-90.6). ChAdOx1nCoV-19 first dose vaccine effectiveness was 80.4% (95% CI 36.4-94.5). When effectiveness analysis for BNT162b2 was restricted to the period covered by ChAdOx1nCoV-19, the estimate was 79.3% (95% CI 47.0-92.5).
Interpretation: A single dose of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1nCoV-19 vaccine resulted in substantial reductions in the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation in elderly, frail patients with extensive co-morbid disease.
Funding: The AvonCAP study is an investigator-led project funded under a collaborative agreement by Pfizer.
Conflict of Interest: CH is Principal Investigator of the Avon CAP study which is an investigator-led University of Bristol study funded by Pfizer and has previously received support from the NIHR in an Academic Clinical Fellowship. JO is a Co-Investigator on the Avon CAP Study. AF is a member of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunization (JCVI) and chair of the World Health Organization European Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (ETAGE) committee. In addition to receiving funding from Pfizer as Chief Investigator of this study, he leads another project investigating transmission of respiratory bacteria in families jointly funded by Pfizer and the Gates Foundation. The other authors have no relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Health Research Authority Research Ethics Committee (East of England, Essex), REC 20/EE/0157, including data collection under Section 251 of the 2006 NHS Act authorised by the Confidentiality Advisory Group.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, respiratory infection, vaccination
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