Are School Reopening Decisions Related to Funding? Evidence from Over 12,000 Districts During the COVID-19 Pandemic

16 Pages Posted: 10 Mar 2021

See all articles by Corey DeAngelis

Corey DeAngelis

Reason Foundation; Cato Institute; Educational Freedom Institute

Christos Makridis

Stanford University; Arizona State University (ASU); Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management; Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

Date Written: March 8, 2021


In theory, public school districts with more funding might be more likely to reopen in person if resources are a primary driver of their reopening decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is also possible that these decisions are influenced by other factors including political partisanship, incentive structures, and special interests. Using data on over 12,000 school districts in the United States, we quantify the relationship between public school revenues and expenditures per student and their reopening decisions in Fall 2020. Our preferred statistical specifications, which compare school districts in the same county, suggest that there is no relationship between funding and the decision to make classes fully remote. If anything, we find a positive relationship when we compare districts in the same state, which suggests that the schools that went fully remote were actually financially better off than their in-person counterparts in the same state. These results are consistent across various analytic techniques and specifications controlling for district size and a rich set of county-level demographics including political partisanship, COVID-19 risk, household income, educational attainment, and the race and age distributions. In sum, we do not find any evidence to suggest that additional stimulus funding for K-12 public schools is necessary or sufficient for them to reopen in person.

Keywords: school reopening, school closures, COVID-19, school funding, economics of education

JEL Classification: I28, I20

Suggested Citation

DeAngelis, Corey and Makridis, Christos, Are School Reopening Decisions Related to Funding? Evidence from Over 12,000 Districts During the COVID-19 Pandemic (March 8, 2021). Available at SSRN: or

Corey DeAngelis (Contact Author)

Reason Foundation ( email )

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Cato Institute ( email )

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Educational Freedom Institute ( email )

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Christos Makridis

Stanford University ( email )

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Arizona State University (ASU) ( email )

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management ( email )

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Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ( email )

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