Butler and Smith's Ethical and Theological Framing of Commerce
Adam Smith, Theology, and Morality, ed. Ballor and van der Kooi (London: Routledge, Forthcoming)
41 Pages Posted: 9 Mar 2021 Last revised: 23 Mar 2021
Date Written: March 8, 2021
This chapter presents ethical and theological perspectives on commerce in Adam Smith through the lens of Bishop Joseph Butler. After discussing the context of Butler's political economy and Smith's and Butler's overlapping theological and psychological frameworks, I focus on three issues. The first is self-love. Against Hobbes, the French Jansenists, and then especially Mandeville, Butler rehabilitates self-love, framing it as morally legitimate, interrelated with conscience, and consistent with the good of our neighbor. Smith follows suit. Second is the dialectical relationship between self-love and benevolence. Butler is clear that the affections of self-love and benevolence interrelate on a psychological level. But the objects of self-love and benevolence--private and public good--also coincide. In pursuing our own happiness, we very often further what a benevolent onlooker would approve of; in knowledge of that coincidence, we may derive a deeper satisfaction from the pursuit. Third, Smith follows Butler's sensibilities about effective benevolence and the limits of knowledge. Both thinkers warmly regard charity and distributive justice. But they see that to pursue distributive justice in an impersonal, abstract fashion is to reach beyond our comprehension. Commercial activity and local beneficence within the bounds of our knowledge appear as principal ways in which we can cooperate with God in serving the good of humankind.
Keywords: Joseph Butler; Adam Smith; commerce; theology; self-love; charity
JEL Classification: B12, B30, I3
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation