Gender Differences in the Intention to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19 - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

38 Pages Posted: 18 Mar 2021

See all articles by Stephanie Zintel

Stephanie Zintel

Heidelberg University

Charlotte Flock

Heidelberg University

Anna Lisa Arbogast

Heidelberg University

Alice Forster

Ruprecht Karls University

Christian von Wagner

University College London

Monika Sieverding

Heidelberg University

Date Written: March 12, 2021

Abstract

Introduction: Since the end of 2020, the first officially approved vaccines against COVID-19 are available and vaccination roll out has started worldwide. As high vaccination rates are necessary to reach herd immunity and overcome the pandemic, it is important to identify sociodemographic characteristics that are associated with vaccination intention or hesitancy. The goal of our review was to analyze whether there are gender differences in the intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

Method: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analytical calculations to analyze gender differences in the COVID-19 vaccination intention. PubMed, Web of Science and PsycInfo were repeatedly searched between November 19th 2020 and January 7th 2021 for studies reporting absolute frequencies in COVID-19 vaccination intention separated by gender or statistical tests for gender differences. A quality appraisal was conducted and averaged odds ratios comparing vaccine intenders among men and women were computed via meta-analyses.

Results: Sixty studies were included in the review and data for 46 studies were available for meta-analytic computations. A majority (58.3%) of papers reported men to have higher intentions to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Meta-analytic calculations of 46 studies (n = 141 550) showed that significantly more men stated that they would get vaccinated, OR of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.28 to 1.55 respectively). Findings suggest that this effect is evident in several countries around the world and that the difference is bigger in samples of health care workers than in unspecified general population samples.

Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that men are more willing to have the COVID-19 vaccine. The reasons for the lower vaccination intentions of women should be investigated and addressed. Heterogeneity of data and representativeness of samples have to be considered when interpreting the results.

Note: Funding Statement: None.

Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Keywords: COVID-19, vaccination, intention, gender differences, health care workers, systematic review, meta-analysis

JEL Classification: I12

Suggested Citation

Zintel, Stephanie and Flock, Charlotte and Arbogast, Anna Lisa and Forster, Alice and von Wagner, Christian and Sieverding, Monika, Gender Differences in the Intention to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19 - a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (March 12, 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3803323 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3803323

Stephanie Zintel

Heidelberg University ( email )

Grabengasse 1
Heidelberg, 69117
Germany

Charlotte Flock

Heidelberg University ( email )

Grabengasse 1
Heidelberg, 69117
Germany

Anna Lisa Arbogast

Heidelberg University ( email )

Grabengasse 1
Heidelberg, 69117
Germany

Alice Forster

Ruprecht Karls University ( email )

Mannheim, 68167
Germany

Christian Von Wagner

University College London ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Monika Sieverding (Contact Author)

Heidelberg University ( email )

Grabengasse 1
Heidelberg, 69117
Germany

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