Four Components of Expertise

3 Pages Posted: 5 Apr 2021

Date Written: March 16, 2021


This paper aims to extend the concept of expertise, with a focus on its application to polymathy studies and to the three elements of polymathy: depth, breadth and integration. Departing from Herling’s (2000) "Operational definitions of expertise and competence", in which he outlines three basic components of expertise (knowledge, problem-solving, and experience), I propose a more sophisticated differentiation that involves four types of knowledge: (1) Epistemic Knowledge; (2) Tooled Knowledge; (3) Idiosyncratic Knowledge; and (4) Meta-Knowledge.

Keywords: Polymathy, Expertise, Knowledge, Lotus Flower of Knowledge, Polymath, Use of Knowledge, Human Capital

Suggested Citation

Araki, Michael, Four Components of Expertise (March 16, 2021). Available at SSRN: or

Michael Araki (Contact Author)

University of Louisville ( email )

110 W Brandeis Ave
Louisville, KY 40292
United States
502-852-6440 (Phone)

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