Normativity and the Other

17 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2021 Last revised: 2 Jun 2021

See all articles by Joseph Raz

Joseph Raz

University of Oxford - Faculty of Law; Columbia University - Law School; King's College London - The Dickson Poon School of Law

Date Written: March 22, 2021


The paper examines some arguments for and against the view that practical reasons are subject to a participatory condition of some kind. The distinctive constitutive element of participatory conditions is that conduct or attitudes, actual or hypothetical, of people other than those who have a reason, expressing approval or the absence of disapproval of the reason in question, are a condition for the existence of practical reasons, or of large classes of them.

Keywords: normativity, practical reasons, value of rational powers, respect for people, contractualism, T.M. Scanlon,

Suggested Citation

Raz, Joseph, Normativity and the Other (March 22, 2021). King's College London Law School Research Paper Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: or

Joseph Raz (Contact Author)

University of Oxford - Faculty of Law ( email )

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Columbia University - Law School ( email )

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King's College London - The Dickson Poon School of Law ( email )

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