Angola, War Crimes and Transitional Justice
The Oxford Handbook on Atrocity Crimes, 2019
24 Pages Posted: 15 Apr 2021
Date Written: February 1, 2019
After a war of independence against the Portuguese colonizer, Angola has known a civil war from 1975-2002. What could be characterized as a ‘proxy cold-war’ in the 1970s and 1980s, in the 1990s turned into a ‘greed’ based war over the control of natural resources. During the war numerous war crimes and arguably also crimes against humanity were committed; an estimated 500.000 to 1 million people died as a consequence of the war, the country was infected with landmines. When a peace agreement was signed in 2002, it included a blanket amnesty for all former warring parties. Based on a literature review and original empirical fieldwork, this chapter describes in particular why and how – in the absence of any accountability mechanisms – alternative strategies to truth seeking, reconciliation, commemoration or memorialization have only to a limited extent been adopted.
Keywords: Angola, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, Amnesty, Accountability Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Memorialization, Illiberal Peace, Education
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