Rivalry with and without Crowds: An Analysis of Four Regional Soccer Tournaments in Brazil before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

18 Pages Posted: 10 Apr 2021

See all articles by Alexandre Loures

Alexandre Loures

Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB) - Economics; Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB) - Economics

Claudio D. Shikida

PPGOM; Enap

Rodrigo Fernandez

PPGOM-UFPel

Date Written: April 8, 2021

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic caused an interruption in Brazilian soccer in 2020. Since early July, the presence of fans at stadiums was strictly forbidden by law. The literature states that crowds' pressure could result in a referee's bias against the away team and increase the home team's pressure to score goals. Using a sample of the four 1st leagues’ main regional leagues of Brazilian soccer, we found, at best, mixed results regarding yellow cards issued in games played before and during the COVID-19. One effect in line with the literature is that derbies are associated with less home advantage than other matches, regardless of the pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, Sports Economics, Sports Economics, Soccer

JEL Classification: Z2

Suggested Citation

Loures, Alexandre and Shikida, Claudio D. and Fernandez, Rodrigo, Rivalry with and without Crowds: An Analysis of Four Regional Soccer Tournaments in Brazil before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 8, 2021). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3822740 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3822740

Alexandre Loures

Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB) - Economics ( email )

United States

Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB) - Economics ( email )

United States

Claudio D. Shikida (Contact Author)

PPGOM ( email )

Rua Gomes Carneiro nº 1
4o andar
Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96001-970
Brazil

Enap ( email )

SPO área especial 2-a
Brasília/DF, Distrito Federal 70610-900
Brazil

HOME PAGE: http://gov.br/enap

Rodrigo Fernandez

PPGOM-UFPel ( email )

Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, RS
Brazil

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