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Profile of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Single BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 Vaccine in Residents and Staff Within Residential Care Homes (VIVALDI Study)
17 Pages Posted: 4 May 2021More...
Background: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) have experienced high mortality rates from SARS-CoV-2 infection and as such have been prioritized for Covid-19 vaccination. Several countries have implemented an extended interval of up to 12 weeks between first and second vaccine doses to increase population coverage after single administration.
Methods: Spike-specific immune responses that were induced following single administration of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 were studied in 89 staff and 35 residents within LTCFs. Quantitative antibody and cellular responses were determined as well as antibody inhibition of spike protein-ACE2 binding from viral variants.
Results: 20% of staff and 34% of residents were found to have serological evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and all of these donors demonstrated strong antibody responses that were independent of age. Antibody responses were detectable within 99% and 79% of ‘infection-naive’ staff and residents respectively but were 8.2-fold lower within residents. This effect resulted from slower kinetics of antibody generation within residents which reached levels comparable to staff after only 42 days. In contrast spike-specific cellular responses were equivalent between both groups. Antibody inhibition activity against the B.1.351 and P.1 viral variants of concern was low using serum from ‘infection-naive’ older donors. Prior history of natural infection thus has a marked impact on the magnitude and quality of antibody response after a single Covid-19 vaccine in care home residents.
Interpretation: Residents who are infection-naive have delayed antibody responses to the first dose of vaccine and might be considered for an early second vaccine where possible.
Funding: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care
Declaration of Interests: LS reports grants from the Department of Health and Social Care during the conduct of the study and is a member of the Social Care Working Group, which reports to the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies. AH is a member of the New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group at the Department of Health.
Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the South Central - Hampshire B Research Ethics Committee, REC Ref: 20/SC/023.
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