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Profile of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Single BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 Vaccine in Residents and Staff Within Residential Care Homes (VIVALDI Study)

17 Pages Posted: 4 May 2021

See all articles by Gokhan Tut

Gokhan Tut

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tara Lancaster

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Maria Krutikov

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics

Panagiota Sylla

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

David Bone

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Nayandeep Kaur

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Eliska Spalkova

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Christopher Bentley

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Umayr Amin

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Azar Jadir

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Samuel Hulme

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Megan Butler

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Morenike Ayodele

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Rachel Bruton

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Madhumita Shrotri

University College London - UCL Institute of Health Informatics

Borscha Azmi

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics

Chris Fuller

University College London - UCL Institute of Health Informatics

Aidan Irwin-Singer

Department of Health and Social Care

Andrew C Hayward

University College London - Research Department of Epidemiology & Public Health

Andrew Copas

University College London - Institute for Global Health

Laura Shallcross

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics

Paul Moss

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

More...

Abstract

Background: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) have experienced high mortality rates from SARS-CoV-2 infection and as such have been prioritized for Covid-19 vaccination. Several countries have implemented an extended interval of up to 12 weeks between first and second vaccine doses to increase population coverage after single administration. 

Methods: Spike-specific immune responses that were induced following single administration of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 were studied in 89 staff and 35 residents within LTCFs. Quantitative antibody and cellular responses were determined as well as antibody inhibition of spike protein-ACE2 binding from viral variants. 

Results: 20% of staff and 34% of residents were found to have serological evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and all of these donors demonstrated strong antibody responses that were independent of age. Antibody responses were detectable within 99% and 79% of ‘infection-naive’ staff and residents respectively but were 8.2-fold lower within residents. This effect resulted from slower kinetics of antibody generation within residents which reached levels comparable to staff after only 42 days. In contrast spike-specific cellular responses were equivalent between both groups. Antibody inhibition activity against the B.1.351 and P.1 viral variants of concern was low using serum from ‘infection-naive’ older donors. Prior history of natural infection thus has a marked impact on the magnitude and quality of antibody response after a single Covid-19 vaccine in care home residents. 

Interpretation: Residents who are infection-naive have delayed antibody responses to the first dose of vaccine and might be considered for an early second vaccine where possible.  

Funding: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care

Declaration of Interests: LS reports grants from the Department of Health and Social Care during the conduct of the study and is a member of the Social Care Working Group, which reports to the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies. AH is a member of the New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group at the Department of Health.

Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the South Central - Hampshire B Research Ethics Committee, REC Ref: 20/SC/023.

Suggested Citation

Tut, Gokhan and Lancaster, Tara and Krutikov, Maria and Sylla, Panagiota and Bone, David and Kaur, Nayandeep and Spalkova, Eliska and Bentley, Christopher and Amin, Umayr and Jadir, Azar and Hulme, Samuel and Butler, Megan and Ayodele, Morenike and Bruton, Rachel and Shrotri, Madhumita and Azmi, Borscha and Fuller, Chris and Irwin-Singer, Aidan and Hayward, Andrew C and Copas, Andrew and Shallcross, Laura and Moss, Paul, Profile of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Single BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 Vaccine in Residents and Staff Within Residential Care Homes (VIVALDI Study). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3839453 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3839453

Gokhan Tut (Contact Author)

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tara Lancaster

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Maria Krutikov

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Panagiota Sylla

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

David Bone

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Nayandeep Kaur

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Eliska Spalkova

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Christopher Bentley

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Umayr Amin

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Azar Jadir

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Samuel Hulme

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Megan Butler

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Morenike Ayodele

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Rachel Bruton

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy ( email )

Birmingham
United Kingdom

Madhumita Shrotri

University College London - UCL Institute of Health Informatics

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Borscha Azmi

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Chris Fuller

University College London - UCL Institute of Health Informatics ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Aidan Irwin-Singer

Department of Health and Social Care ( email )

United Kingdom

Andrew C Hayward

University College London - Research Department of Epidemiology & Public Health ( email )

1-19 Torrington Place
London, WC1E 7HB
United Kingdom

Andrew Copas

University College London - Institute for Global Health

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Laura Shallcross

University College London - Institute for Health Informatics ( email )

Gower Street
London, WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Paul Moss

University of Birmingham - Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy

Birmingham
United Kingdom

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