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The Emergence of COVID-19 Associated Mucormycosis: Analysis of Cases From 18 Countries
33 Pages Posted: 12 May 2021More...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated mucormycosis (CAM) has recently been increasingly reported, particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Patients with diabetes and hyperglycemia often display an inflammatory state that may be potentiated by the activation of antiviral immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and thus may favor secondary infections. We analyze 80 published and unpublished cases of CAM, with a predominance (42/80) of cases from India. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus as well as systemic corticosteroid treatment represented major comorbid predisposing factors and rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis was the most frequent presentation of disease. Mortality was high at 49%, driven particularly by those with pulmonary or disseminated mucormycosis and those with cerebral involvement. Furthermore, a significant proportion of surviving patients suffered life-changing morbidities (loss of vision in 46% of survivors). Our review indicates that CAM may be a relevant complication of severe COVID-19, particularly in those with uncontrolled diabetes.
Funding: Martin Hoenigl received funding from Astellas for two investigator initiated studies (ISR005824 and ISR005838), and was supported by the National Institutes of Health, Grant UL1TR001442. Agostinho Carvalho was supported by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) (UIDB/50026/2020 and UIDP/50026/2020), the Northern Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000039), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 847507, and the “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434) and FCT under the agreement LCF/PR/HR17/52190003.
Declaration of Interest: MH received research funding from Gilead, Pfizer, Astellas, Scynexis and NIH. JPG received speaker and expert advice fees from Pfizer and Gilead. NK has received research grants or honoraria as a speaker or advisor from Astellas, Gilead, MSD, and Pfizer, outside the submitted work. KL received consultancy fees from SMB Laboratoires Brussels, MSD and Gilead, travel support from Pfizer, speaker fees from FUJIFILM WAKO, Pfizer and Gilead, a service fee from Thermo fisher Scientific. OAC is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education, is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy – CECAD, EXC 2030 – 390661388 and has received research grants from, is an advisor to, or received lecture honoraria from Actelion, Allecra Therapeutics, Al-Jazeera Pharmaceuticals, Amplyx, Astellas, Basilea, Biosys, Cidara, Da Volterra, Entasis, F2G, Gilead, Grupo Biotoscana, Immunic, IQVIA, Janssen, Matinas, Medicines Company, MedPace, Melinta Therapeutics, Menarini, Merck/MSD, Mylan, Nabriva, Noxxon, Octapharma, Paratek, Pfizer, PSI, Roche Diagnostics, Scynexis, and Shionogi. PLW performed diagnostic evaluations and received meeting sponsorship from Bruker, Dynamiker, and Launch Diagnostics; Speakers fees, expert advice fees and meeting sponsorship from Gilead; and speaker and expert advice fees 489 from F2G and speaker fees MSD and Pfizer. Is a founding member of the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative. ACh received funding support from educational grant of Pfizer, MSD Pharmaceutical Ltd, and Gilead. All other authors no conflicts.
Ethical Approval: MISSING
Keywords: COVID-19, fungal, mould, Mucorales, diabetes, corticosteroids, infection, SARS-CoV2
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation