Differential Effects of the Second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Dose on T Cell Immunity in Naïve and COVID-19 Recovered Individuals
13 Pages Posted: 12 May 2021 Publication Status: Review CompleteMore...
The rapid development and deployment of mRNA-based vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the design of accelerated vaccination schedules that have been extremely effective in naïve individuals. While a two-dose immunization regimen with the BNT162b2 vaccine has been demonstrated to provide a 95% efficacy in naïve individuals, the effects of the second vaccine dose in individuals who have previously recovered from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been investigated in detail. Here we characterized, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naïve and previously infected individuals during and after two-doses of BNT162b2 vaccination. Our results demonstrate that, while the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naïve individuals, COVID-19 recovered individuals reach their peak of immunity after the first dose. These results suggests that a second dose, according to the current standard regimen of vaccination, may be not necessary in individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported in part by National Cancer Institute of the NIH (5R01HD102614-02; R01CA249204 and R01CA248984) and ISMMS seed fund to EG. The authors gratefully acknowledge use of the services and facilities of the Tisch Cancer Institute supported by the NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA196521). MS was supported by a NCI training grant (T32CA078207). This work was supported by ISMMS seed fund to JO; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, COV20-00668 to RCR; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (COVID-19 Research Call COV20/00181) co-financed by European Development Regional Fund “A way to achieve Europe” to EP; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (COV20/00170); Government of Cantabria, Spain (2020UIC22-PUB 0019) to MLH; Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI16CIII/00012) to PP; Fondo Social Europeo e Iniciativa de Empleo Juvenil YEI (Grant PEJ2018-004557-A) to MPE; REDInREN 016/009/009 ISCIII; This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme VACCELERATE under grant agreement No  to JO.
Conflict of Interest: AB declares the filling of a patent application relating to the use of peptide pools in whole blood for detection of SARS-CoV-2 T cells (pending). The other authors declare no competing interests.
Ethical Approval: The study protocols for the collection of clinical specimens from individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed and approved by Hospital La Paz, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, IIS-Fundación Jimenez Díaz, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL and Hospital Puerta de Hierro Clinical Research Ethics Committee (CEIm), and Mount Sinai Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB).
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