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Differential Effects of the Second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Dose on T Cell Immunity in Naïve and COVID-19 Recovered Individuals

13 Pages Posted: 12 May 2021 Publication Status: Review Complete

See all articles by Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo

Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Precision Immunology Institute

Carmen Camara

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Eduardo Lopez-Granados

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Pilar Nozal

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Lucía del Pino-Molina

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Yadira Bravo-Gallego

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Estela Paz-Artal

University Hospital 12 de Octubre - Department of Immunology

Marjorie Pion

Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón - Laboratory of Immune-Regulation

Rafael Correa-Rocha

Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón - Laboratory of Immune-Regulation

Alberto Ortiz

IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz - Department of Nephrology

Marcos Lopez-Hoyos

Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL - Department of Immunology

Marta Erro Iribarren

Hospital Puerta de Hierro - Department of Pneumology

Jose Portoles

Hospital Puerta de Hierro - Department of Nephrology

Maria Pilar Rojo-Portoles

Centro de Salud, Esquivias

Gloria Ojeda

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Isabel Cervera

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Maria Gonzalez-Perez

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Irene Bodega-Mayor

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Maria Montes-Casado

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Pilar Portoles

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Mayte Pérez-Olmeda

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Jesús Oteo

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Rodrigo Sanchez-Tarjuelo

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Venu Pothula

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

Megan Schwarz

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

Manisha Brahmachary

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

Anthony Tanoto Tan

Duke-NUS Medical School - Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases

Nina Le Bert

Duke-NUS Medical School - Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases

Cecilia Berin

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Pediatrics

Antonio Bertoletti

Duke-NUS Medical School - Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases

Ernesto Guccione

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

jordi ochando

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Precision Immunology Institute

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Abstract

The rapid development and deployment of mRNA-based vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the design of accelerated vaccination schedules that have been extremely effective in naïve individuals. While a two-dose immunization regimen with the BNT162b2 vaccine has been demonstrated to provide a 95% efficacy in naïve individuals, the effects of the second vaccine dose in individuals who have previously recovered from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been investigated in detail. Here we characterized, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naïve and previously infected individuals during and after two-doses of BNT162b2 vaccination. Our results demonstrate that, while the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naïve individuals, COVID-19 recovered individuals reach their peak of immunity after the first dose. These results suggests that a second dose, according to the current standard regimen of vaccination, may be not necessary in individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Funding: Research reported in this publication was supported in part by National Cancer Institute of the NIH (5R01HD102614-02; R01CA249204 and R01CA248984) and ISMMS seed fund to EG. The authors gratefully acknowledge use of the services and facilities of the Tisch Cancer Institute supported by the NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA196521). MS was supported by a NCI training grant (T32CA078207). This work was supported by ISMMS seed fund to JO; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, COV20-00668 to RCR; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (COVID-19 Research Call COV20/00181) co-financed by European Development Regional Fund “A way to achieve Europe” to EP; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (COV20/00170); Government of Cantabria, Spain (2020UIC22-PUB 0019) to MLH; Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI16CIII/00012) to PP; Fondo Social Europeo e Iniciativa de Empleo Juvenil YEI (Grant PEJ2018-004557-A) to MPE; REDInREN 016/009/009 ISCIII; This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme VACCELERATE under grant agreement No [101037867] to JO.

Conflict of Interest: AB declares the filling of a patent application relating to the use of peptide pools in whole blood for detection of SARS-CoV-2 T cells (pending). The other authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval: The study protocols for the collection of clinical specimens from individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed and approved by Hospital La Paz, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, IIS-Fundación Jimenez Díaz, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL and Hospital Puerta de Hierro Clinical Research Ethics Committee (CEIm), and Mount Sinai Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Suggested Citation

Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel and Camara, Carmen and Lopez-Granados, Eduardo and Nozal, Pilar and del Pino-Molina, Lucía and Bravo-Gallego, Yadira and Paz-Artal, Estela and Pion, Marjorie and Correa-Rocha, Rafael and Ortiz, Alberto and Lopez-Hoyos, Marcos and Iribarren, Marta Erro and Portoles, Jose and Rojo-Portoles, Maria Pilar and Ojeda, Gloria and Cervera, Isabel and Gonzalez-Perez, Maria and Bodega-Mayor, Irene and Montes-Casado, Maria and Portoles, Pilar and Pérez-Olmeda, Mayte and Oteo, Jesús and Sanchez-Tarjuelo, Rodrigo and Pothula, Venu and Schwarz, Megan and Brahmachary, Manisha and Tan, Anthony Tanoto and Le Bert, Nina and Berin, Cecilia and Bertoletti, Antonio and Guccione, Ernesto and ochando, jordi, Differential Effects of the Second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Dose on T Cell Immunity in Naïve and COVID-19 Recovered Individuals. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3844997 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3844997
This version of the paper has not been formally peer reviewed.

Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Precision Immunology Institute ( email )

United States

Carmen Camara

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Spain

Eduardo Lopez-Granados

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Madrid
Spain

Pilar Nozal

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Spain

Lucía Del Pino-Molina

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Spain

Yadira Bravo-Gallego

Hospital La Paz - Department of Immunology

Spain

Estela Paz-Artal

University Hospital 12 de Octubre - Department of Immunology

Madrid
Spain

Marjorie Pion

Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón - Laboratory of Immune-Regulation

Madrid
Spain

Rafael Correa-Rocha

Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón - Laboratory of Immune-Regulation

Madrid
Spain

Alberto Ortiz

IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz - Department of Nephrology

Av. Reyes Católicos 2
Madrid, 28040
Spain

Marcos Lopez-Hoyos

Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL - Department of Immunology

Marta Erro Iribarren

Hospital Puerta de Hierro - Department of Pneumology

Madrid
Spain

Jose Portoles

Hospital Puerta de Hierro - Department of Nephrology

Madrid
Spain

Maria Pilar Rojo-Portoles

Centro de Salud, Esquivias

Gloria Ojeda

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Isabel Cervera

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Maria Gonzalez-Perez

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Irene Bodega-Mayor

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Maria Montes-Casado

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Pilar Portoles

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Mayte Pérez-Olmeda

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Jesús Oteo

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Rodrigo Sanchez-Tarjuelo

Carlos III Institute of Health - National Centre for Microbiology

Monforte de Lemos 5
Madrid, Madrid 28029
Spain

Venu Pothula

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574
United States

Megan Schwarz

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574
United States

Manisha Brahmachary

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences

One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574
United States

Anthony Tanoto Tan

Duke-NUS Medical School - Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases

Singapore

Nina Le Bert

Duke-NUS Medical School - Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases ( email )

8 College Road
Singapore

Cecilia Berin

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Pediatrics

One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574
United States

Antonio Bertoletti

Duke-NUS Medical School - Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases ( email )

8 College Road
Singapore

Ernesto Guccione

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Department of Oncological Sciences ( email )

One Gustave L. Levy Place
New York, NY 10029-6574
United States

Jordi Ochando (Contact Author)

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai - Precision Immunology Institute ( email )

United States

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