First Come, First Served: The Timing of Government Support and Its Impact on Firms
43 Pages Posted: 13 May 2021
Date Written: April 9, 2021
We study the effects of deploying government capital to firms during crises. Using exogenous variation in the timing of disbursements in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), we find that firms receiving PPP loans later become more financially distressed and face reductions in credit supply. These effects are amplified for firms with heightened financial constraints. We also show that firms receiving loans later have lower economic activity using in-store activity and shutdowns. The results are consistent with a direct channel on firm operations and a financing channel. Overall, our findings highlight the role of timely and uninterrupted fiscal support during crises.
Keywords: financial distress, fiscal policy, crises
JEL Classification: E62, G32, H12
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation