Historic Journey of Indian Higher Education System
International Journal of Research 2021, Vol-7; Spl.Issue-I of WB State University
12 Pages Posted: 20 May 2021
Date Written: February 09, 2021
The present paper discusses the historic journey of the Indian higher education system, which can be chronologically categorized into Ancient Vedic times, Medieval Buddhist period, Islamic period, modern, pre and postcolonial era. In this journey, a system of western education takes a position in higher institutions of learning. The institutions of higher learning are considered the most important agency of social change, social transformation, and the entire development of the country. This journey of higher education started with an ancient system of education in the Vedic period in which two types of educational systems were present. The Brahmanic system of education was regulated by religious values, while the Buddhist form of education was secular in nature. But the major change in Indian higher education took place through the initiatives of British rulers that made an impact both in positive and negative ways. At that time, the indigenous system of education received a severe setback as the British system created a new class that served the British rulers.
At present, the number of institutions in India is more than four times the total number of institutions in both the USA and Europe. However, the average size of an Indian higher education institution in terms of enrolment numbers is much smaller than that of Europe and the USA, and China. The Knowledge Commission recently advocated the need for expansion of Universities and Colleges in India. Therefore, this paper focuses mainly on the socio-historical development of higher education in India from the ancient period through to the present.
Keywords: Ancient period, Medieval period, Pre and postcolonial modern era, Higher education
JEL Classification: Y80
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