Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

40 Pages Posted: 13 Mar 2003

See all articles by Ira N. Gang

Ira N. Gang

Rutgers University - Economics Department; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

John Landon-Lane

Rutgers University, New Brunswick/Piscataway - Faculty of Arts and Sciences-New Brunswick/Piscataway - Department of Economics

Myeong-Su Yun

Inha University - Department of Economics; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Date Written: January 2003

Abstract

We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the income distribution - the movement of women and men through the distribution of income over time. We find that there is considerable evidence in favor of a glass ceiling both in Germany and the United States. In Germany the glass ceiling is evident in higher incomes while in the United States the glass ceiling is evident at all incomes levels.

Keywords: Glass Ceiling, Mobility, Markov Chain, Income Distribution Dynamics, Gender Discrimination

JEL Classification: D3, D63, J7

Suggested Citation

Gang, Ira N. and Landon-Lane, John and Yun, Myeong-Su, Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility (January 2003). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=385161

Ira N. Gang

Rutgers University - Economics Department ( email )

75 Hamilton Street
ECONOMICS, New Jersey Hall, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1248
United States
732-932-7363 (Phone)
732-932-7416 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://econweb.rutgers.edu/gang/research

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

John Landon-Lane (Contact Author)

Rutgers University, New Brunswick/Piscataway - Faculty of Arts and Sciences-New Brunswick/Piscataway - Department of Economics ( email )

75 Hamilton Street
New Brunswick, NJ 08901
United States

Myeong-Su Yun

Inha University - Department of Economics ( email )

253 Yonghyun-dong
Nam-gu Incheon 402-751
+82 32 860-7779 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://sites.google.com/site/myeongsuyun

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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