Identifying Artificial Intelligence (AI) Invention: A Novel AI Patent Dataset

62 Pages Posted: 30 Jun 2021 Last revised: 19 Aug 2021

See all articles by Alexander V. Giczy

Alexander V. Giczy

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Nicholas A. Pairolero

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Andrew Toole

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Date Written: August 2021

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an area of increasing scholarly and policy interest. To help researchers, policymakers, and the public, this paper describes a novel dataset identifying AI in over 13.2 million patents and pre-grant publications (PGPubs). The dataset, called the Artificial Intelligence Patent Dataset (AIPD), was constructed using machine learning models for each of eight AI component technologies covering areas such as natural language processing, AI hardware, and machine learning. The AIPD contains two data files, one identifying the patents and PGPubs predicted to contain AI and a second file containing the patent documents used to train the machine learning classification models. We also present several evaluation metrics based on manual review by patent examiners with focused expertise in AI, and show that our machine learning approach achieves state-of-the-art performance across existing alternatives in the literature. We believe releasing this dataset will strengthen policy formulation, encourage additional empirical work, and provide researchers with a common base for building empirical knowledge on the determinants and impacts of AI invention.

Keywords: patent, patent landscape, artificial intelligence, AI, machine learning, patent dataset

JEL Classification: O31, O34, C45, L86

Suggested Citation

Giczy, Alexander and Pairolero, Nicholas and Toole, Andrew A, Identifying Artificial Intelligence (AI) Invention: A Novel AI Patent Dataset (August 2021). USPTO Economic Working Paper No. 2021-2, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3866793 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3866793

Alexander Giczy

United States Patent and Trademark Office ( email )

Alexandria
VA 22313-1451
United States

Nicholas Pairolero (Contact Author)

United States Patent and Trademark Office ( email )

Andrew A Toole

United States Patent and Trademark Office ( email )

Alexandria
VA 22313-1451
United States

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