On Sacred Land

84 Pages Posted: 16 Jun 2021 Last revised: 3 Aug 2021

See all articles by Khaled A. Beydoun

Khaled A. Beydoun

Arizona State Univeristy (ASU) College of Law

Date Written: June 15, 2021


2010 through the present marked a prolific uptick in land use discrimination against Muslims – 160% greater than that of the post-9/11 period. Most startlingly, only 20% of Muslim land use disputes were resolved without a federal suit, compared to 84% of suits involving a non- Muslim claimant. This highlights the staunch resistance many local governments have against the creation of mosques and other Muslim institutions, and how the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Person’s Act (RLUIPA) counters this form of religious discrimination during an era of shrunken judicial protection following Employment Division v. Smith.

The Anti-Sharia Movement, which also emerged in 2010, casts Islam as un-American and Muslim institutions as symbols of threat. It endorses these fears through legislation introduced at the state level. This Article ties the rise in Muslim land use discrimination to the projective influence of the Anti-Sharia Movement on local governments. It makes three entwined arguments: First, that the discriminatory posture of municipal governments toward Muslim land use requests is shaped by the local effect of the anti- Sharia Movement; Second, that RLUIPA enforcement not only overrides discriminatory denials of Muslim land use requests, but restores collective and collateral rights to Muslim communities by facilitating the creation of institutions vital for religious expression; and Third, RLUIPA relief retrenches the municipal entanglement of the Anti-Sharia Movement by imposing penalties—which have a deterrent effect on prospective discrimination against Muslims within the land use realm, and beyond.

This analysis follows with proposals aimed at enhancing RLUIPA’s capacity to protect Muslims, and other religious minority groups, from land use discrimination during a moment of rising racial and religious animus. Looking ahead, this Article is also concerned with the other side of the religious freedom debate. And, from the vantage point of the Establishment Clause, concludes with an appeal for coordinated strategies by vulnerable religious minority and LGBTQ groups – common targets of movements that wield religious freedom as a basis for discrimination.

Keywords: Property, discrimination, law, Islam, RLUIPA, religion

Suggested Citation

Beydoun, Khaled, On Sacred Land (June 15, 2021). Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 105, 2021, Wayne State University Law School Research Paper No. 2021-82, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3866997

Khaled Beydoun (Contact Author)

Arizona State Univeristy (ASU) College of Law ( email )

Box 877906
Tempe, AZ 85287-7906
United States

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