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Estimated Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in the Texas Pediatric Population, 2021

26 Pages Posted: 16 Jun 2021

See all articles by Sarah Messiah

Sarah Messiah

University of Texas Health Science Center - School of Public Health

Melissa A. Valerio-Shewmaker

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Stacia M. DeSantis

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Michael D. Swartz

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Ashraf Yaseen

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Frances A. Brito

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Harold W. Kohl, III

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Steven H. Kelder

University of Texas at Houston - Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environment Sciences

Kimberly Aguillard

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Onyinye S. Omega-Njemnobi

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Camille Breaux

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Jessica A. Ross

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Michael O. Gonzalez

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Shiming Zhang

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

Leqing Wu

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

David Lakey

University of Texas at Austin

Jennifer A. Shuford

Government of the State of Texas - Department of Health

Stephen J. Pont

Government of the State of Texas - Department of Health

Eric Boerwinkle

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

More...

Abstract

Background: The extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents at a population level in 2021 remains unclear. Children and adolescents have been considered to play an important role in transmission regardless of presence of symptoms. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody status in children ages 5-to-19 years in a sample from the State of Texas in the presence and absence of symptoms.

Methods: The TX CARES (Texas Coronavirus Antibody Response Survey) is an ongoing prospective population-based sample from the Texas general population (~29·8 million) that commenced in October 2020. For the current analysis, volunteers ages 5-to-19 years were recruited throughout the state from large pediatric healthcare systems, Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers, urban and rural pediatric and family medicine practices, health insurance providers, and a social media campaign. SARS-CoV-2 antibody status measured via the Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoassay. Prevalence of IgM, IgA, or IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification of age and sex. We report here findings from January 1-June 1, 2021.

Findings: This analysis that included 503 children ages 5-to-19 years showed 38·7% (95% CI, 34·5-43·1) of the sample was SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive in fully adjusted estimates. A total of 30·1% (95% CI, 29·4-31·5) of adults (N=6992) in the sample were antibody positive. Over half (55·8%) of those with positive antibody status were reportedly asymptomatic. Headache (25·4%), congestion/runny nose (20·8%), and fatigue (20·3%) and were the most frequently reported symptoms among those with a positive antibody result. The odds of having a positive antibody status was 37% higher in 15-to-19 year olds versus adults (OR 1·37, 95% CI, 1·03-1·83).

Interpretation: These results highlight that a majority of the pediatric population remains immunologically naive to SARS-CoV-2, emphasizing the important role vaccines may play in reaching whole population herd immunity.

Funding: Texas Department of State Health Services.

Declaration of Interest: We declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval: All protocols were reviewed and approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Institutional Review Board (IRB), but also deemed public health practice by the Texas Department of State Health Services IRB.

Suggested Citation

Messiah, Sarah and Valerio-Shewmaker, Melissa A. and DeSantis, Stacia M. and Swartz, Michael D. and Yaseen, Ashraf and Brito, Frances A. and Kohl, III, Harold W. and Kelder, Steven H. and Aguillard, Kimberly and Omega-Njemnobi, Onyinye S. and Breaux, Camille and Ross, Jessica A. and Gonzalez, Michael O. and Zhang, Shiming and Wu, Leqing and Lakey, David and Shuford, Jennifer A. and Pont, Stephen J. and Boerwinkle, Eric, Estimated Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in the Texas Pediatric Population, 2021. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3868061 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3868061

Sarah Messiah (Contact Author)

University of Texas Health Science Center - School of Public Health ( email )

Paul M. Bass Administrative and Clinical Center
6363 Forest Park Road, BL10.204
Dallas, TX 75390
United States
972-546-2919 (Phone)
214-351-7006 (Fax)

Melissa A. Valerio-Shewmaker

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Stacia M. DeSantis

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Michael D. Swartz

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Ashraf Yaseen

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Frances A. Brito

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Harold W. Kohl, III

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Steven H. Kelder

University of Texas at Houston - Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environment Sciences ( email )

Kimberly Aguillard

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Onyinye S. Omega-Njemnobi

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Camille Breaux

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Jessica A. Ross

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Michael O. Gonzalez

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health ( email )

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Shiming Zhang

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

Leqing Wu

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

David Lakey

University of Texas at Austin ( email )

2317 Speedway
Austin, TX 78712
United States

Jennifer A. Shuford

Government of the State of Texas - Department of Health ( email )

United States

Stephen J. Pont

Government of the State of Texas - Department of Health ( email )

United States

Eric Boerwinkle

University of Texas at Houston - School of Public Health

1200 Pressler Street
Houston, TX 77030
United States

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