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Tolerability and Immunogenicity After a Late Second Dose or a Third Dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222)
35 Pages Posted: 28 Jun 2021More...
Background: COVID-19 vaccine supply shortages are causing concerns about compromised immunity in some countries as the interval between first and second dose extends. Conversely, countries with no supply constraints are considering administering a third dose. We assessed the persistence of immunogenicity after a single dose, the immunity after an extended interval between the first and second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(AZD1222), and the response to a third dose as a late booster.
Methods: Volunteers aged 18-55 years who were enrolled in a Phase 1/2 or Phase 2/3 clinical trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and had received either a single dose or two doses of 5×10 10 viral particles were invited back for vaccination. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a delayed second dose or a third dose are reported here.
Findings: Antibody titres after a single dose and measured on d362 remain higher than the titres measured on d0 (62.61 EU; 95% CI 47.43-82.64 vs 1 EU 95% CI 1-16). 30 participants received a late second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (median 44 weeks after first dose), antibody titres were higher in those with a longer interval between first and second dose (median EU for 8-12, 15-25, and 44-46 weeks were 923 [IQR 525-1764], 1860 [IQR 917-4934] and 3738 [IQR 1824-6625] respectively). 90 participants received a third dose and antibody titres were significantly higher following a third dose (FRNT50 612 [IQR 351-920]) when compared with the response 28 days after a second dose (FRNT 50 319 [IQR 176-591]. T-cell responses were also boosted after a third dose. Reactogenicity after a late second dose or a third dose was lower than reactogenicity after a first dose.
Interpretation: A longer delay before the second dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 leads to an increased antibody titre after the second dose. A third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 induces antibodies to a level that correlate with high efficacy after second dose and boosts T-cell responses.
Funding: UK Research and Innovation (MC_PC_19055), Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/R013756/1), National Institute for Health Research (COV19 OxfordVacc-01), Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (Outbreak Response To Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)), National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC4 Vaccines Theme), Thames Valley and South Midland’s NIHR Clinical Research Network, and AstraZeneca. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the UK Department of Health and Social Care.
Declaration of Interest: Oxford University has entered into a partnership with AstraZeneca for further development of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. AstraZeneca reviewed the data from the study and the final manuscript before submission, but the authors retained editorial control. SCG and AVSH are cofounders of and shareholders in Vaccitech (collaborators in the early development of this vaccine candidate) and named as inventors on a patent covering use of ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines (PCT/GB2012/000467) and a patent application covering this SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (SCG only). TL is named as an inventor on a patent covering use of ChAdOx1-vectored vaccines (PCT/GB2012/000467) and was a consultant to Vaccitech. PMF is a consultant to Vaccitech. AJP is Chair of the UK Department of Health and Social Care’s JCVI, but does not participate in policy advice on coronavirus vaccines, and is a member of the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE). AJP is a NIHR Senior Investigator.
Ethical Approval: In the UK, the COV001 and COV002 studies were approved by the South Central Berkshire Research Ethics Committee (COV001 reference 20/SC/0145, March 23, 2020; and COV002 reference 20/SC/0179; conditional approval April 8, full approval April 19, 2020).
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