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Cellular Immune Responses are Preserved and May Contribute to Chadox1 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Against Infection Due to SARS-CoV-2 B·1·617·2 Delta Variant Despite Reduced Virus Neutralisation

29 Pages Posted: 16 Jul 2021

See all articles by Ramachandran Thiruvengadam

Ramachandran Thiruvengadam

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Amit Awasthi

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Guruprasad Medigeshi

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Sankar Bhattacharya

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Shailendra Mani

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Sridhar Sivasubbu

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Tripti Srivatsava

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Sweety Samal

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Deepika Rathna Murugesan

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Bapu Koundinya Desiraju

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Pallavi Kshetrapal

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Rajesh Pandey

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Vinod Scaria

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Praveen Kumar Malik

ESIC Medical College and Hospital

Juhi Taneja

ESIC Medical College and Hospital

Akshay Binayke

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Tarini Vohra

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Aymaan Zaheer

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Deepak Rathore

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Naseem Ahmed Khan

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Heena Shaman

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Shubbir Ahmed

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Rajesh Kumar

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Suprit Deshpande

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Chandru Subramani

Regional Center for Biotechnology

Nitya Wadhwa

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Nimesh Gupta

National Institute of Immunology

Anil K. Pandey

ESIC Medical College and Hospital

Jayanta Bhattacharya

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Anurag Agrawal

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology

Sudhanshu Vrati

Regional Center for Biotechnology

Shinjini Bhatnagar

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

Pramod Kumar Garg

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute

DBT Consortium for COVID-19 Research

More...

Abstract

Background: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoC) has threatened the effectiveness of vaccination due to decreased neutralisation ability of the vaccine generated antibodies. Our objective was to assess ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine effectiveness during the massive surge from 1st April to 31stMay 2021 predominantly due to the more infectious B·1·617·2 (Delta) in India.

Methods: We conducted a test-negative case-control study to assess the effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Cases were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we tested live virus neutralisation and cellular immune responses against VoC among healthy recipients of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. The outcomes were effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against infection and severe coronavirus disease-19, virus neutralisation effectivity and T-cell responses against the VoC among healthy vaccine recipients.

Findings: Of the 2766 cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 3·1% were fully vaccinated compared with 7·1% of the 2377 controls giving an adjusted OR of 0·37 (95%CI 0·28, 0·48); this translated to 63·1% (95%CI 51·5, 72·1) vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 B·1·617·2 variant, seen in 90% of the infected population as confirmed by whole-genome virus sequencing. Full vaccination prevented moderate-severe COVID-19 in 81·5% (95%CI: 9·9, 99·0). The effectiveness of single-dose vaccine was 46·2% (95%CI: 31·6, 57·7) against infection but 79·2% (95%CI: 46·1, 94·0) in preventing moderate-severe Covid-19. Among healthy vaccinated persons, plasma live virus neutralisation was 2·5-6·8 fold lower against B·1·1·7, B·1·351, B·1·617·1 and B·1·617·2 being lowest against B·1·617·2. However, T-cell responses were preserved against the recombinant mutant receptor binding domain antigens suggesting cell-mediated immune protection.

Interpretation: Despite significantly reduced virus neutralisation, the effectiveness of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was 63% against B·1·617·2 infection and 81·5% in preventing severe disease. Spike specific T cells responses against virus variants were maintained and might contribute to immune protection following vaccination.

Funding Information: Department of Biotechnology, Government of India; Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, India; Fondation Botnar.

Declaration of Interests: None to declare.

Ethics Approval Statement: The studies were approved by the Institute Ethics Committees of the partnering institutions.

Suggested Citation

Thiruvengadam, Ramachandran and Awasthi, Amit and Medigeshi, Guruprasad and Bhattacharya, Sankar and Mani, Shailendra and Sivasubbu, Sridhar and Srivatsava, Tripti and Samal, Sweety and Murugesan, Deepika Rathna and Desiraju, Bapu Koundinya and Kshetrapal, Pallavi and Pandey, Rajesh and Scaria, Vinod and Malik, Praveen Kumar and Taneja, Juhi and Binayke, Akshay and Vohra, Tarini and Zaheer, Aymaan and Rathore, Deepak and Khan, Naseem Ahmed and Shaman, Heena and Ahmed, Shubbir and Kumar, Rajesh and Deshpande, Suprit and Subramani, Chandru and Wadhwa, Nitya and Gupta, Nimesh and Pandey, Anil K. and Bhattacharya, Jayanta and Agrawal, Anurag and Vrati, Sudhanshu and Bhatnagar, Shinjini and Garg, Pramod Kumar and COVID-19 Research, DBT Consortium for, Cellular Immune Responses are Preserved and May Contribute to Chadox1 ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Against Infection Due to SARS-CoV-2 B·1·617·2 Delta Variant Despite Reduced Virus Neutralisation. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3884946 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3884946

Ramachandran Thiruvengadam

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Amit Awasthi

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Guruprasad Medigeshi

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Sankar Bhattacharya

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Shailendra Mani

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Sridhar Sivasubbu

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology ( email )

Sukhdev Vihar
Mathura Road
New Delhi, 110029
India

Tripti Srivatsava

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Sweety Samal

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Deepika Rathna Murugesan

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Bapu Koundinya Desiraju

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Pallavi Kshetrapal

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Rajesh Pandey

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology ( email )

Sukhdev Vihar
Mathura Road
New Delhi, 110029
India

Vinod Scaria

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology ( email )

Sukhdev Vihar
Mathura Road
New Delhi, 110029
India

Praveen Kumar Malik

ESIC Medical College and Hospital ( email )

Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India

Juhi Taneja

ESIC Medical College and Hospital ( email )

Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India

Akshay Binayke

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Tarini Vohra

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Aymaan Zaheer

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Deepak Rathore

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Naseem Ahmed Khan

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Heena Shaman

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Shubbir Ahmed

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Rajesh Kumar

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Suprit Deshpande

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Chandru Subramani

Regional Center for Biotechnology ( email )

Nitya Wadhwa

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Nimesh Gupta

National Institute of Immunology ( email )

Aruna asaf ali Margh
New Delhi, 110067
India

Anil K. Pandey

ESIC Medical College and Hospital ( email )

Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India

Jayanta Bhattacharya

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Anurag Agrawal

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology ( email )

Sukhdev Vihar
Mathura Road
New Delhi, 110029
India

Sudhanshu Vrati

Regional Center for Biotechnology ( email )

Shinjini Bhatnagar

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

Pramod Kumar Garg (Contact Author)

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute ( email )

Faridabad, Haryana
India

No contact information is available for DBT Consortium for COVID-19 Research

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