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Effect of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in MS Patients Treated With Disease Modifying Therapies
21 Pages Posted: 20 Jul 2021More...
Background: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are known to affect immune response to antigens and possibly to SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response.
Methods: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech, Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx, Inc). A blood collection for the measure of SARS-CoV-2 antibody before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche Diagnostics).
Findings: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariate analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (178-fold decrease, p<0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease, p<0·001) and rituximab (17-fold decrease, p<0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. mRNA-1273 vaccine resulted in a systematically 3·5-fold higher antibody level than the BNT162b2 vaccine (p<0·001).
Interpretation: In pwMS, therapy with anti-CD20 and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·5-higher antibody titers than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 or fingolimod. Since it is still unknown the role of T-cells vaccine response, further information is required about the role of cellular immunity triggered by vaccination to better define the most appropriate strategy to vaccinate pwMS under specific DMTs.
Funding Information: FISM [2021/Special-Multi/001]; the Italian Ministry of Health grant ‘Progetto Z844A 5x1000’.
Declaration of Interests: MPS reports grants from Roche, during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Biogen, Merck, Roche, Sanofi, personal fees from Novartis, Medday, Geneuro, Celgene, Mylan, outside the submitted work; MI reports consulting fees from Roche, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Genzyme, Biogen; AL has received personal compensation from Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, Biogen, Merck, and Roche for public speaking and advisory boards. AL received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health, and the Italian Ministry of University; CC reports personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Biogen Idec, personal fees from Almirall, personal fees from Merck Serono, outside the submitted work; DL reports consulting fees Roche, Biogen, Teva, Mylan, Sanofi-Genzyme, fess for advisory boards from Bristol-Celgene, Merck, Novartis, JF reports consulting fees fromSanofi, Biogen, Admirall; ADS reports personal consulting fees from Biogen, Novartis, Genzyme; MS reports research support and personal consulting fees from Merk, Sanofi, Novartis, Biogen, Roche; AU has received personal compensation from Novartis, Biogen, Merck, Roche and Sanofi Genzyme for public speaking and advisory boards. AU received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health and the European Community. IS, LC, CL, GDR, CS, IG, TT, GP, PG, GPB, AM, MLS, MC, ES, MTF, LP, MU, FM, GC, RI, GL, AMR, FC, SC, MAB, DF, have nothing to dislcose.
Ethics Approval Statement: The study is done in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol is approved by the regional (CER Liguria: 5/2021 - DB id 11169- 21/01/2021) and the centralized national ethical committee AIFA/Spallanzani (Parere n 351, 2020/21). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before starting any study procedures.
Keywords: multiple Sclerosis, Coronavirus, Immunomodulatory therapies
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