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An Open, Non-Randomised, 1/2 Phase Study on the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of Single Dose 'Sputnik Light' Vaccine for Prevention of Coronavirus Infection in Healthy Adults
106 Pages Posted: 19 Jul 2021More...
Background: While the world is experiencing another wave of COVID-19 pandemic, global vaccination program is hampered by obvious shortage in supply of licensed vaccines. Development of new vaccines that are easy to manufacture and administer is highly desirable to overcome hurdles in vaccine scaling up and distribution, especially in developing countries. In the effort to satisfy vaccine demands we developed a new single dose vaccine based on recombinant adenovirus type 26 (rAd26) vector carrying the gene for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein – “Sputnik Light”.
Methods: We conducted an open label, two-stage, prospective, non-randomized phase I-II trial aimed to assess safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of “Sputnik Light” vaccine in a single center in Russia. Primary outcome measures were antigen-specific humoral immunity (Anti-RBD-SARS-Cov2 antibodies measured by ELISA on days 1, 10, 28, and 42) and safety (number of participants with adverse events monitored throughout the study). Secondary outcome measures were antigen-specific cellular immunity (measured by antigen-dependent CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation, number of antigen-specific interferon-γ-producing cells as well as interferon-γ concentration upon antigen restimulation) and change in neutralizing antibodies (measured in SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay). The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04713488).
Findings: Between January 14 and 27, 2021, 150 participants were screened, of whom 110 were enrolled. Most of solicited adverse reactions were mild (66.4% from all vaccinees), few were moderate (5.5%). No serious adverse events were detected. Assessment of Anti-RBD-SARS-Cov2 antibodies revealed group with pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Upon this finding we separated all safety and immunogenicity data according to pre-existing immunity to SARS-Cov2. There were notable differences in the vaccine effects on immunogenicity by the groups. Vaccination of seropositive (N=14) volunteers rapidly boosted RBD-specific IgGs from reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) 594.4 at a baseline up to 26899 comparing to 29.09 in seronegative group (N=96) by day 10. By day 42 seroconversion rate reached 100% (93/93) in seronegative group with GMT 1648. At the same time in seropositive group seroconversion rate by day 42 was 92.9% (13/14) with GMT 19986. Analysis of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 showed 81.7% (76/93) and 92.9% (13/14) seroconversion rates by day 42 with median reciprocal GMT 15.18 and 579.7 in the seronegative and seropositive groups, respectively. Each test to assess cell-mediated immune reactions was carried out on a separate group of 30 volunteers on day 10 upon vaccination. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation, formation of IFNy-producing cells, as well as IFNy secretion were detected in 96.7% (26/27), 96% (24/25) and 96% (24/25) seronegative and in 100% (3/3) 100% (5/5) and 100% (5/5) seropositive vaccinees, correspondingly.
Interpretation: The single dose rAd26 vector-based COVID-19 vaccine “Sputnik Light” has a good safety profile and induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses both in seronegative and seropositive participants. Further investigation is needed to assess the effectiveness of this vaccine against COVID-19 used for primary and secondary vaccination.
Clinical Trial Registration Details: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04713488).
Funding Information: Russian Direct Investment Fund.
Declaration of Interests: OVZ, TAO, IVD, OP, DVS, DMG, ASD, AIT, DNS, IBE, EAT, AGB, ASE, FMI, NAN, NLL, ASS, SVB, BSN, DYL, ALG report patents for an immunobiological expression vector, pharmaceutical agent, and its method of use to prevent COVID-19. All other authors declare no competing interests.
Ethics Approval Statement: The trial was approved by the local ethic committee and was conducted with the approval of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization and National Good Clinical Practice guidelines and Declaration of Helsinki.
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