Scheduling Shared Passenger and Freight Transport on a Fixed Infrastructure

44 Pages Posted: 19 Jul 2021 Last revised: 13 Apr 2022

Date Written: April 13, 2022


Increases in last-mile transport contribute to congestion and pollution in urban environments. To make deliveries more sustainable, they may be integrated with existing public transport infrastructure, e.g., metros or trams. This integration can rely on alternative operational modes: shared infrastructure lets passenger and cargo vehicles share the same rail network, whereas shared vehicles simultaneously transport cargo and passengers.
To explore the effects of integrated planning under different operational modes, we introduce a linear mixed-integer program that optimises the train schedule and allocates cargo. It features a lexicographical objective function that prioritises passenger transport while minimising cargo delivery delay. We analyse the interplay of operational modes, scheduling solutions, and demand settings in a simulation study. The results show that a well-planned train schedule significantly contributes to service quality and reduces the system’s sensitivity to increasing freight demand. Furthermore, a system with shared vehicles is more robust towards fluctuating demand, whereas a system with only shared infrastructure is a valid option to allow a high dwell time for freight vehicles.

Keywords: transportation, logistics, shared transport, scheduling, simulation

Suggested Citation

Hörsting, Lena and Cleophas, Catherine, Scheduling Shared Passenger and Freight Transport on a Fixed Infrastructure (April 13, 2022). Available at SSRN: or

Catherine Cleophas

CAU Kiel University ( email )

Olshausenstr. 40
Kiel, SH 24118

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics