Is Recreational Marijuana a Gateway to Harder Drug Use and Crime?

96 Pages Posted: 19 Jul 2021 Last revised: 8 Aug 2021

See all articles by Joseph Sabia

Joseph Sabia

San Diego State University - Department of Economics

Dhaval Dave

Bentley University - Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) - NY Office

Fawaz Alotaibi

Claremont Colleges - Claremont Graduate University

Daniel I. Rees

University of Colorado Denver; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Date Written: July 2021

Abstract

Recreational marijuana laws (RMLs), which legalize the possession of small quantities of marijuana for recreational use, have been adopted by 18 states and the District of Columbia. Opponents argue that RML-induced increases in marijuana consumption will serve as a “gateway” to harder drug use and crime. Using data covering the period 2000-2019 from a variety of national sources (the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, the Uniform Crime Reports, the National Vital Statistics System, and the Treatment Episode Data Set) this study is the first to comprehensively examine the effects of legalizing recreational marijuana on hard drug use, arrests, drug overdose deaths, suicides, and treatment admissions. Our analyses show that RMLs increase adult marijuana use and reduce drug-related arrests over an average post-legalization window of three to four years. There is little evidence to suggest that RML-induced increases in marijuana consumption encourage the use of harder substances or violent criminal activity, and some evidence that RMLs may aid in reducing opioid-related mortality.

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Suggested Citation

Sabia, Joseph and Dave, Dhaval and Dave, Dhaval and Alotaibi, Fawaz and Rees, Daniel I., Is Recreational Marijuana a Gateway to Harder Drug Use and Crime? (July 2021). NBER Working Paper No. w29038, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3889145

Joseph Sabia (Contact Author)

San Diego State University - Department of Economics ( email )

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Dhaval Dave

Bentley University - Department of Economics ( email )

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Fawaz Alotaibi

Claremont Colleges - Claremont Graduate University

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Daniel I. Rees

University of Colorado Denver ( email )

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Denver, CO 80218
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National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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