The Effect of Lockdown on Students’ Performance: A Comparative Study between Sweden, Italy, and Turkey

23 Pages Posted: 24 Jul 2021

See all articles by Giorgia Casalone

Giorgia Casalone

University of Piemonte Orientale

Alessandra Michelangeli

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Department of Economics, Management and Statistics (DEMS); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Center for European Studies (CefES); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics, Psychology & Social Sciences (CISEPS)

John Östh

Uppsala University

Umut Türk

Abdullah Gül University-Departmant of Economics

Date Written: July 21, 2021

Abstract

During the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, different countries adopted different strategies in order to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. Regarding higher education, university studies were moved entirely to digital solutions in some countries, while other countries kept the universities open but restricted access. The sudden move to digital educational solutions affected students differently, and since different countries invented different mitigation strategies we got an opportunity to compare the effects of lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic on university students’ performance in Italy, Sweden, and Turkey. We employ a difference-in-differences approach by exploiting the fact that Italy and Turkey experienced national lockdowns, while Sweden never applied nationwide mandatory restrictive measures. We use administrative data from universities in the three countries to estimate the probability to pass exams after the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic (and the shift to distance education), with respect to the previous comparable period. We find that the pass rate decreased with the shift to online teaching. However, lockdown measures, especially if very restrictive as those applied in Italy, helped to compensate for such negative effects. A possible explanation is that students took advantage of the huge increase in the time available for their studies, given the impossibility to carry out any activity outside the home.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Students’ outcomes; Student’s integration; Time-to-study; Difference-in-Differences.

JEL Classification: I21; I28

Suggested Citation

Casalone, Giorgia and Michelangeli, Alessandra and Östh, John and Türk, Umut, The Effect of Lockdown on Students’ Performance: A Comparative Study between Sweden, Italy, and Turkey (July 21, 2021). University of Milan Bicocca Department of Economics, Management and Statistics Working Paper No. 473, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3891102

Giorgia Casalone

University of Piemonte Orientale

Rectory, via Duomo
Novara, 6-13100
Italy

Alessandra Michelangeli (Contact Author)

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Department of Economics, Management and Statistics (DEMS) ( email )

Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1
Milan, 20126
Italy

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Center for European Studies (CefES)

U6 Building
Viale Piero e Alberto Pirelli, 22
Milano, 20126
Italy

Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca - Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics, Psychology & Social Sciences (CISEPS) ( email )

Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1
Milano, 20126
Italy

John Östh

Uppsala University ( email )

Box 513
Uppsala, 751 20
Sweden

Umut Türk

Abdullah Gül University-Departmant of Economics ( email )

Sumer Campus
Kayseri
Turkey

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