Differentiation and Segmentation

27 Pages Posted: 26 Jul 2021 Last revised: 4 Nov 2021

See all articles by Jozef Bátora

Jozef Bátora

Comenius University

John Erik Fossum

ARENA Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo

Date Written: July 23, 2021


It is widely recognized that the EU that emerged from the financial and refugee crises of the last decade has become more differentiated. Such a development brings forth important questions about the nature and character of the EU as a political system, and the kinds of processes and mechanisms that drive its development. An important problem is that neither differentiated integration nor differentiation say much about the positive character or the distinguishing features of the EU as a political system. The claim that we set forth in this paper is that the notion of the EU as a segmented political system provides a more apt and precise characterisation of the EU as a political system. In addition, the notion of segmentation helps to capture some of the distinct dynamics that propel the EU’s development.

Keywords: Crisis, Differentiation, European Union, Function, Segmentation, Segmented political order, Territory

Suggested Citation

Bátora, Jozef and Fossum, John Erik, Differentiation and Segmentation (July 23, 2021). EU3D Research Paper No. 9, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3892312 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3892312

Jozef Bátora

Comenius University ( email )

SK-84215 Bratislava

John Erik Fossum (Contact Author)

ARENA Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo ( email )

PO Box 1143 Blindern
N-0317 Oslo, 0318

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