Multigenerational Mobility in India

34 Pages Posted: 24 Jul 2021

See all articles by Anustup Kundu

Anustup Kundu

University of Helsinki

Kunal Sen

The University of Manchester


Most studies of intergenerational mobility focus on adjacent generations, and there is limited knowledge about multigenerational mobility that is, status transmission across three generations. We examine multigenerational educational and occupational mobility in India, using a nationally representative data-set the India Human Development Survey which contains information about education and occupation for three generations. We find that mobility has increased over generations for education, but not for occupation. We also find that there are stark differences across social groups, with individuals belonging to socially disadvantaged communities in India lagging behind in social progress. Multigenerational mobility for Muslims in education and occupation have decreased in comparison to Hindus over the three generations. While we find that there is an increase in educational mobility for other disadvantaged groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes compared to General Castes, we do not find evidence of increased occupational mobility over the three generations.

JEL Classification: J62, J15, O12

Suggested Citation

Kundu, Anustup and Sen, Kunal, Multigenerational Mobility in India. IZA Discussion Paper No. 14566, Available at SSRN: or

Anustup Kundu (Contact Author)

University of Helsinki

University of Helsinki
Helsinki, FIN-00014

Kunal Sen

The University of Manchester ( email )

Oxford Road
Manchester, N/A M13 9PL
United Kingdom

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