The Gendered Effects of Climate Change: Production Shocks and Labor Response in Agriculture

59 Pages Posted: 29 Jul 2021

See all articles by Farzana Afridi

Farzana Afridi

Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi - Indian Statistical Institute

Kanika Mahajan

Ashoka University

Nikita Sangwan

Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi

Abstract

Climate change has increased rainfall uncertainty, leading to greater production risks in agriculture. We examine the gender-differentiated labor impacts of droughts resulting from lower precipitation using unique individual-level panel data for agricultural households in India over half a decade. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in individual responses, we find that women's workdays fall by 11% more than men's when a drought occurs, driven by former's lack of diversification to the non-farm sector. Women are less likely to work outside their village and migrate relative to men in response to droughts, and are consequently unable to cope fully with the adverse agricultural productivity shock. Our findings can be explained by social costs emanating from gender norms that constrain women's access to non-farm work opportunities. The results highlight the gendered impact of climate change, potentially exacerbating extant gender gaps in the labor market.

JEL Classification: Q54, J16, J43, J60

Suggested Citation

Afridi, Farzana and Mahajan, Kanika and Sangwan, Nikita, The Gendered Effects of Climate Change: Production Shocks and Labor Response in Agriculture. IZA Discussion Paper No. 14568, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3892596 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3892596

Farzana Afridi (Contact Author)

Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi - Indian Statistical Institute

New Delhi
New Delhi, 110016
India

Kanika Mahajan

Ashoka University ( email )

University Campus, Plot #2,
Rajiv Gandhi Education City
Kundli, Haryana 131028
India

Nikita Sangwan

Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi ( email )

7 S. J. S. Sansanwal Marg
New Delhi, 110016
India

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