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Establishment of CORONET: COVID-19 Risk in Oncology Evaluation Tool to Identify Cancer Patients at Low Versus High Risk of Severe Complications of COVID-19 Infection Upon Presentation to Hospital
51 Pages Posted: 28 Jul 2021More...
Background: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of severe COVID-19, but have heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. Decision-making tools for hospital admission, severity prediction and increased monitoring for early intervention are critical. We sought to identify features of COVID-19 in cancer patients predicting severe disease and build a decision-support online tool; COVID-19 Risk in Oncology Evaluation Tool (CORONET).
Methods: Patients with active cancer (stage I-IV) and laboratory confirmed COVID-19 presenting to hospitals worldwide were included. Discharge (within 24hrs), admission (≥24hrs inpatient), oxygen requirement (O2) and death were combined in a 0-3 point severity scale. Association of features with outcome were investigated using Lasso regression and Random Forest (RF) combined with SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP). RF was further validated in 4 cohorts, split by geography. The CORONET model was then examined in the entire cohort to build an online CORONET decision-support tool. Admission and severe disease thresholds were established through pragmatically defined cost functions.
Findings: The dataset comprised 920 patients; median age 70 (range 5-99), 56% males, 44% females, 81% solid vs. 19% haematological cancers. In derivation, RF demonstrated superior performance over Lasso with lower mean squared error (0.801 vs. 0.807) and was selected for development. During validation, RF achieved mean AUROC 0.77, 0.80 and 0.75 for prediction of admission, O 2 and death, respectively. Using the entire cohort, CORONET cut-offs for admission and mortality of 1.0 and 2.3 were established. The CORONET decision support tool recommended admission for 95% of patients eventually requiring oxygen and 97% of those who died. SHAP explanations revealed National-Early-Warning-Score-2, C-reactive protein and albumin were the most important features contributing to COVID-19 severity prediction in patients with cancer at time of hospital presentation.
Interpretation: CORONET, a decision-support tool validated in healthcare systems worldwide can aid admission decisions and predict COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.
Funding Information: R. Lee and T. Robinson and J. Weaver are supported by the National Institute for Health Research as Clinical Lecturers. T. Bhogal is supported by the National Institute for Health Research as an academic clinical fellow. U. Khan is an MRC Clinical Training Fellow based at the University of Liverpool supported by the North West England Medical Research Council Fellowship Scheme in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, which is funded by the Medical Research Council (Award Ref. MR/N025989/1). The Liverpool Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre for providing infrastructure support (Grant Reference: C18616/A25153) and The Clatterbridge Cancer charity (North West Cancer Research). C. Dive is funded by CRUK Core funding to Manchester Institute (C5757/A27412) and is supported by the CRUK Manchester Centre Award (C5759/A25254), and by the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre. C. Zhou is funded by the CRUK Manchester Centre Award (C5759/A25254), J. Stevenson and P. Fitzpatrick are funded by the CRUK Accelerator Award (29374). This research was funded in part, by the Wellcome Trust [205228/Z/16/Z]. LT is also supported by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (NIHR200907) at University of Liverpool in partnership with Public Health England (PHE), in collaboration with Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the University of Oxford. LT is based at University of Liverpool. MS is supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation for the state support for the creation and development of WorldClass Research Centers "Digital biodesign and personalized healthcare” N.075-15-2020-926.
Declaration of Interests: R Lee research funding (institution) BMS and speaker fees Astrazeneca.
A. Croitoru Consulting or Advisory Role: Lilly, Merck, Roche, Bayer, Novartis, Ipsen, Research Funding me and my hospital: Gilead Sciences, Pfizer, Canfite, NanoCarrier, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck, Amgen, Servier, Five Prime Therapeutics, Travel Accommodations: Pfizer, Genekor, and oz, Merck, Pfizer, Servier, Roche.
O. Michielin reports personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, personal fees from MSD, personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Roche, personal fees from Amgen, personal fees from NeraCare GmbH, outside the submitted work.
E. Romano institutional research grants from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb.
G. Pentheroudakis advisory board for Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lilly, Merck, MSD, Roche, Abbvie, institutional research grants from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol Myers Squibb, Debbio, Enorasis, Genekor, Ipsen, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, Servier.
Solange Peters reports consultation/advisory role: AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Beigene, Biocartis, Bio Invent, Blueprint Medicines, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Clovis, Daiichi Sankyo, Debiopharm, Eli Lilly, Elsevier, F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech, Foundation Medicine, Illumina, Incyte, IQVIA, Janssen, Medscape, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Merck Serono, Merrimack, Mirati, Novartis, Pharma Mar, Phosplatin Therapeutics, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi, Seattle Genetics, Takeda, Vaccibody, talk in a company’s organized public event: AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, e-cancer, Eli Lilly, F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech, Illumina, Medscape, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Novartis, PER, Pfizer, Prime, RTP, Sanofi, Takeda,
receipt of grants/research supports: (Sub)investigator in trials (institutional financial support for clinical trials) sponsored by Amgen, AstraZeneca, Biodesix, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers
Squibb, Clovis, F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech, GSK, Illumina, Lilly, Merck Sharp and Dohme,
Merck Serono, Mirati, Novartis, and Pfizer, Phosplatin Therapeutics.
M Rowe honoraria from Astellas Pharma, speaker fees MSD and Servier.
C. Wilson consultancy and speaker fees Pfizer, Amgen, Novartis,
A Armstrong conference fee Merck, spouse shares in Astrazeneca.
T Robinson financial support to attend educational workshops from Amgen and Daiichi-Sankyo.
C Dive, outside of this scope of work, has received research funding from AstraZeneca, Astex Pharmaceuticals, Bioven, Amgen, Carrick Therapeutics, Merck AG, Taiho Oncology, Clearbridge Biomedics, Angle PLC, Menarini Diagnostics, GSK, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Roche, BMS, Novartis, Celgene, Thermofisher. C Dive is on advisory boards for, and has received consultancy fees/honoraria from, AstraZeneca, Biocartis and Merck KGaA.
No other authors have nothing to declare.
Ethics Approval Statement: Approval (reference 20/WA/0269) was granted from the UK Research Ethics Committee for the study. Information regarding governance/regulatory approvals for each international cohort are available in the Supp. Methods.
Keywords: COVID-19, cancer, SARS-CoV-2, decision support tool; CORONET
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation