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Health Effects of Green Spaces on Alleviating Mortality Attributable to Pm 2·5 in China
18 Pages Posted: 27 Jul 2021More...
Background: Increasing research suggested that green spaces are associated with many health benefits, but evidence for the quantitative relationship between green spaces and mortality attributable to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2·5 μm or less (PM 2·5 ) is limited.
Methods: We collected disease-specific mortality and PM2·5 data for a period of four years (2015–2018) along with green spaces data for a 7-year duration (2011–2017) in 31 provincial-level administrative regions of China. First, this study used the Integrated Exposure–Response model to estimate the mortality of four diseases attributable to PM2·5, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), Lung Cancer (LC), Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Then we performed linear regression and mixed-effects model to investigate the counteracting effect of green spaces on death caused by PM2·5 exposure. The differences in impacts among the Eastern, Central, and Western regions were explored using stratified analysis.
Findings: The results of mixed linear regression analysis indicated that per 100 km2 of green spaces increase, there was a decreased total mortality (10-5) (COPD, LC, IHD, and CVD) attributable to PM2·5 by -1·558 [95% confidence interval (CI): -2·685, -0·431] of 2 years delayed, which of lag0-3 lag analysis was -1·192 (95% CI: -2·193, -0·190). Of all hysteresis analyses, the effect estimates (β) at lag2 and lag0-3 were the largest. The effect of green spaces was more advantageous when targeting CVD and the Eastern region.
Interpretation: We found a negative correlation between green spaces exposure and mortality attributable to PM 2·5 , which can provide further support for urban planners, government personnel, and others to build a healthier city and achieve national health goals.
Funding: None to declare.
Declaration of Interest: None to declare.
Keywords: Green spaces, Mortality, PM2·5, Health effects
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation