Differentiated Integration - One or Many? Public Support for the Varieties of Differentiated Integration

29 Pages Posted: 2 Aug 2021

See all articles by Dirk Leuffen

Dirk Leuffen

University of Konstanz

Lisanne de Blok

University of Amsterdam - Department of Political Science; VU University Amsterdam - Department of Political Science and Public Administration

Julian Schuessler

University of Konstanz - Deptment of Politics and Public Administration

Max Heermann

University of Konstanz - Deptment of Politics and Public Administration

Catherine E. De Vries

Bocconi University - DONDENA - Carlo F. Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics

Date Written: July 29, 2021

Abstract

Using newly collected and so-far unpublished public opinion data on differentiated integration (DI), the research paper analyses the dimensionality of this concept, which has become increasingly prominent in the study of European integration. Factor analyses show that citizens care about two dimensions of differentiation. The first is linked to integration, the second to safeguarding national autonomy or sovereignty. Moreover, to validate previous findings on the Eurobarometer’s ‘two-speed Europe’ item, we run regression analyses on public support for different types or models of DI. Our analyses underline that citizens evaluate different types of DI differently – thus none of the classic models (e.g. ‘two-speed’, ‘core Europe’, or ‘à-la-carte’) allow for generalisation. As a practical implication, our study highlights that citizens’ support of DI strongly hinges on a fair design of DI.

Keywords: Differentiated integration, factor analysis, public opinion, two-speed Europe

Suggested Citation

Leuffen, Dirk and de Blok, Lisanne and Schuessler, Julian and Heermann, Max and De Vries, Catherine E., Differentiated Integration - One or Many? Public Support for the Varieties of Differentiated Integration (July 29, 2021). EU3D Research Paper No. 13, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3895525 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3895525

Dirk Leuffen (Contact Author)

University of Konstanz ( email )

Lisanne De Blok

University of Amsterdam - Department of Political Science ( email )

Binnengasthuis
Oudezijds Achterburgwal 237
Amsterdam, 1012 DL
Netherlands

VU University Amsterdam - Department of Political Science and Public Administration ( email )

Main Building VU 2E-72
De Boelelaan 1101
Amsterdam, 1081 HV
Netherlands

Julian Schuessler

University of Konstanz - Deptment of Politics and Public Administration ( email )

P.O. Box D-85
Konstanz, D-78457
Germany

Max Heermann

University of Konstanz - Deptment of Politics and Public Administration ( email )

P.O. Box D-85
Konstanz, D-78457
Germany

Catherine E. De Vries

Bocconi University - DONDENA - Carlo F. Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan, 20136
Italy

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