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Immune Response and Safety to Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine: A Comparison Between People Living with HIV and HIV-naïve Individuals

23 Pages Posted: 9 Aug 2021

See all articles by Shi Zou

Shi Zou

Wuhan University

Mengmeng Wu

Wuhan University

Fangzhao Ming

Wuchang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention

Songjie Wu

Wuhan University

Wei Guo

Wuhan University - Department of Pathology

Gifty Marly

Nanjing University - School of Public Health

Minxia Zeng

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD

Chao Sun

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD

Jianfeng Zhang

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD

Weiming Tang

University of North Carolina Project-China; Dermatology Hospital of Southern Medical University

Ke Liang

Wuhan University - Department of Infectious Disease; Wuhan University - Department of Nosocomial Infection; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - Wuhan Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Cancer; Wuhan University - Center of Preventing Mother-to-child Transmission for Infectious Diseases

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Abstract

Background: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in healthy adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV(PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear.

Methods: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70.

Findings: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days’ follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI, 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI, 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI, 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI, 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI, 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 BAU/mL, 95% CI, 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI, 64-97)].

Interpretation: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count and a low HIV viral load suppressed by ART.

Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFE0103800), the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81903371), NIMH (R34MH119963), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101-001-001-003), and Special Found on Prevention and Control of New Coronary Pneumonia in Guangdong Universities (2020KZDZX1047), Medical Science and Technology Innovation Platform Support Project of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (PTXM2020008), Science and Technology Innovation Cultivation Fund of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University (cxpy2017043). Medical Science Advancement Program (Basic Medical Sciences) of Wuhan University (TFJC2018004).

Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval: The study was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, P. R. China (2020079K-1). Informed consent was obtained from all individuals enrolled in this study.

Suggested Citation

Zou, Shi and Wu, Mengmeng and Ming, Fangzhao and Wu, Songjie and Guo, Wei and Marly, Gifty and Zeng, Minxia and Sun, Chao and Zhang, Jianfeng and Tang, Weiming and Liang, Ke, Immune Response and Safety to Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine: A Comparison Between People Living with HIV and HIV-naïve Individuals. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3901795 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3901795

Shi Zou

Wuhan University ( email )

Wuhan
China

Mengmeng Wu

Wuhan University ( email )

Wuhan
China

Fangzhao Ming

Wuchang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention

China

Songjie Wu

Wuhan University ( email )

Wuhan
China

Wei Guo

Wuhan University - Department of Pathology

Hubei, 430071
China

Gifty Marly

Nanjing University - School of Public Health ( email )

Nanjing, 211166
China

Minxia Zeng

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD ( email )

China

Chao Sun

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD

Jianfeng Zhang

Zhuhai Livzon Diagnostics CO, LTD

Weiming Tang

University of North Carolina Project-China ( email )

Guangzhou, 510095
China

Dermatology Hospital of Southern Medical University

Guangzhou
China

Ke Liang (Contact Author)

Wuhan University - Department of Infectious Disease ( email )

Wuhan, Hubei
China

Wuhan University - Department of Nosocomial Infection

Wuhan
China

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - Wuhan Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Cancer

Wuhan
China

Wuhan University - Center of Preventing Mother-to-child Transmission for Infectious Diseases

Wuhan
China

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