Specialized Investments and Firms’ Boundaries: Evidence from Textual Analysis of Patents

Fisher College of Business Working Paper No. 2021-03-013

Charles A Dice Center Working Paper No. 2021-13

45 Pages Posted: 17 Aug 2021

See all articles by Jan Bena

Jan Bena

University of British Columbia - Sauder School of Business

Isil Erel

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)

Daisy Wang

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance

Michael S. Weisbach

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI)

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: August 14, 2021

Abstract

Inducing firms to make specialized investments through bilateral contracts can be challenging because of potential holdup problems. Such contracting difficulties have long been argued to be an important reason for acquisitions. To evaluate the extent to which this motivation leads to mergers, we perform a textual analysis of the patents filed by the same lead inventors of the target firms before and after the mergers. We find that patents of inventors from target firms become 28.9% to 46.8% more specific to those of acquirers’ inventors following completed mergers, benchmarked against patents filed by targets and a group of counterfactual acquirers. This pattern is stronger for vertical mergers that are likely to require specialized investments. There is no change in the specificity of patents for mergers that are announced but not consummated. Overall, we provide empirical evidence that contracting issues in motivating specialized investment can be a motive for acquisitions.

Keywords: textual analysis of patents, relationship specific investments, acquisitions

JEL Classification: G34, L14 and L22

Suggested Citation

Bena, Jan and Erel, Isil and Wang, Daisy and Weisbach, Michael S., Specialized Investments and Firms’ Boundaries: Evidence from Textual Analysis of Patents (August 14, 2021). Fisher College of Business Working Paper No. 2021-03-013, Charles A Dice Center Working Paper No. 2021-13, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3906172 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3906172

Jan Bena

University of British Columbia - Sauder School of Business ( email )

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Isil Erel

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance ( email )

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National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

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Daisy Wang

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance ( email )

2100 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1144
United States

Michael S. Weisbach (Contact Author)

Ohio State University (OSU) - Department of Finance ( email )

2100 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1144
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI) ( email )

c/o the Royal Academies of Belgium
Rue Ducale 1 Hertogsstraat
1000 Brussels
Belgium

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